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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00005824

No of Pages: 51

No of Chapters: 5

File Format: Microsoft Word

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1.1          Background of Study

1.2          Aim of study

1.3          Objective of study




2.1          Introduction

2.2          Air Pollutant

2.2.1       Classification of Air Pollutants

2.2.2       Types of Air Pollutants

2.2.3       Sources of Air Pollutants

2.3          Sources of Air Pollution That Affect Air Quality in Nigeria

2.3.1       Anthropogenic Sources of Air Pollution in Nigeria:

2.4          Health Effects of Air Pollution

2.4          Method of Controlling Air Pollution in Nigeria




3.1          Materials

3.2          Study Area

3.3          Study Design

3.4          Sampling

3.5          Distribution Map Development

3.6          Statistical Analysis




4.1          Results

4.1.1       Commercial Air Quality

4.1.2       Residential Areas Air Quality

4.1.3       Comparison Of Air Quality Around Residential And Commercial Areas

4.2          Discussion




5.1          Summary of Findings

5.2          Conclusions

5.3          Recommendations






1.1       Background of Study

The atmosphere is the gaseous state that surrounds the earth and constitutes the transition between its surface and the vacuum of space (Bhatia, 2009). The atmosphere is composed primarily of nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2) and is made up of many layers of air, in each one which is identified by their thermal characteristics or temperature changes, chemical composition, movement and density (Narayanan, 2009). Life on earth is supported by the layers of air, solar energy and our planet's magnetic fields, and the quality of air is very essential to its sustenance (Ojo & Awokola, 2012).

Air pollution is the presence of substances in the atmosphere that are harmful to the health of humans and other living beings, or cause damage to the climate or to materials. The most common air pollutants in the urban environment include: sulphur dioxide (SO2); oxides of nitrogen (NOx), such as nitrogen oxide, (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2); carbon monoxide (CO);volatile organic compounds (VOCs); ozone (O3); suspended particulate matter (SPM) also called particulates; and lead (Pb) (Lutgens & Edward, 2000). Air pollutant can be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, or gases. In addition, they may be natural or man-made (USEPA, 2006; Narayanan, 2009). Sources of air pollution include traffic (vehicle exhaust), industrial sectors (from brick making to oil and gas production), power plants and generating sets, cooking and heating with solid fuels (e.g. coal, wood, crop waste), forest fires and open burning of municipal waste and agricultural residues (Akanni, 2010; Komolafe et al., 2014).

Air pollution may cause diseases, allergies and even death to humans; it may also cause harm to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, and may damage the natural or built environment. Both human activity and natural processes can generate air pollution (Wikipedia contributors, 2021).

Air pollution is believed to be responsible for more than five million deaths annually. Atmospheric pollution generally results from unsustainable combustion of fossil fuels in energy conversion devices (Daniel, 2009). This arises from anthropogenic activities and fugitive emission sources of atmospheric pollutants. These activities include increased vehicular traffic, biomass combustion, use of electric power generating sets, leakages from incinerators and flare stacks. The measured atmospheric pollutants which include sulphur (IV) oxide (SO2), nitrogen (IV) oxide (NO 2 ), carbon (II) oxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM 10 ) are among the air pollutants normally used for air pollution index/air quality index (API/AQI) calculations. These pollutants are everywhere in urban air and are widely recognized as posing potential risk to public health with serious effort s made to regulate their concentrations at national and international levels. These atmospheric pollutants cause serious environmental challenges that most often pose significant threat to clean air which is a basic and fundamental requirement of human existence and environmental health (Lelieveld et al., 2019).

Environmental pollution mainly resulting from atmospheric emissions has become a major and serious environmental issue of great concern in most Nigerian cities. This has become more worrisome due to the increase in sources and the diverse nature of the anthropogenic and fugitive atmospheric pollutants (Damian Carrington Environment, 2019). The level of these atmospheric pollutants in an area is generally influenced by various factors such as concentration, circulation of the local emission sources as well as environmental and the prevailing meteorological factors. This generally depends on spatial variations as well as atmospheric gradients which results in the migration and diffusion of atmospheric contaminants to areas away from the sources of emissions. The emission of these pollutants increases the overall toxic burden of the environment, as well as deteriorates the ambient air quality. The tendency for the release of toxins to the environment is therefore influenced by these factors mentioned above.

Lagos as one of the main cities in Nigeria has been identified as one of the fastest growing megacities in the world, with the potential of becoming the most populous city in Africa by 2015 (Gandy, 2006; Ibem, 2011). However, the cost of population growth is not limited to the demand for water, food and energy resources, but also includes the effect of the increased use of such resources on public health and quality of life. Urban population growth implies that the residents of such cities will increase their demand for journeys through vehicular transport means (Chatterton et al., 2009). Traffic-related pollutants, derived from the use of vehicular transport modes such as cars, are associated with effects ranging from poor public health, built and natural environmental degradation and global climate change (Paulley, 2002). Studies have shown that the level of air pollution in Nigeria’s major cities is at a level that could lead to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in vulnerable individuals (Efe, 2008). Without policy and legislative change in air quality management, increasing numbers of Nigerians living and working in its cities and sprawling urban settlements are at risk from poor air quality.

1.2       Aim of study

The aim of this study is to investigate the nutritional levels of air pollutants around residential and commercial sector locations in Lagos mainland, Lagos, Nigeria.


1.3       Objective of study

The objective of this study is:

1.      To examine the different types of air pollutants in Lagos Mainland

2.      To examine the sources of air pollutants in Lagos Mainland

3.      To determine the level of air pollutants in Lagos Mainland

4.      To access the various ways at which air pollution can be controlled

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