The broad environmental issues faced by the oil
and gas exploration and production
industry are manifested at both
local and global levels. They include: habitat
protection and biodiversity,
air emissions, marine and freshwater discharges, incidents and oil spills, and
soil and groundwater contamination. Research
aim of this chapter is to briefly intimate the reader with various research
designs used by the researchers. And Chi-square were used to analyse the
Presentation, analysis and
interpretation of data: This
chapter deals with the presentations, analysis and interpretation of the da8ta
collected. The data collected will be used to answer the research questions and
test the hypothesis.
have gone ahead to erect effective legal regimes
in the form of laws and regulations to control and reduce this environmental
Table of contents
1.2 BACKGROUND OF
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1.4 Purpose and
Statement of the Problems
1.6 Research Hypothesis
1.7 Research Questions
1.8 Research Limitation
SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION
REASONS FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL
2.3 SCOPE OF AIR
2.4 RELEVANCE OF AIR POLLUTION
2.5 STEPS INVOLVE IN
PRACTICING AIR POLLUTION CONTROL
SPECIFICATION ON AIR POLLUTION CONTROL
3.1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.3 SOURCES OF DATA
POPULATION OF THE STUDY
3.5 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
3.6 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT AND ADMINISTRATION
3.7 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
BRIEF INTRODUCTION OF THE CHAPTER
4.1 DATA TABULATION
ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS
TEST OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
4.4 RESEARCH RESULT AND DECISION
SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The oil and gas industry is truly global,
with operations conducted in every corner of the globe, from Alaska to
Peru to China, and in every habitat from Arctic to desert, from tropical
rainforest to temperate woodland, from mangrove to offshore.
The global community will
rely heavily on oil and gas
supplies for the foreseeable future. World primary energy consumption in
1994 stood at nearly 8000 million tonnes of oil equivalents (BP Statistical Review of
World Energy, June
1995); oil and gas represented 63 per cent of world energy supply, with
coal providing 27 per cent, nuclear energy 7 per cent and hydro-electric 3 per
cent. The challenge is to meet
world energy demands, whilst minimizing adverse impact on the
environment by conforming to current good practice.
The exploitation of oil and
gas reserves has not always
been without some ecological side effects. Oil spills, damaged land,
accidents and fires, and incidents of air and water pollution have all been
recorded at various times and
places. In recent times the social impact of operations, especially
in remote communities, has also attracted attention. The oil and gas industry has
worked for a long time to meet
the challenge of providing environmental protection. Much has already
been achieved but the industry recognizes that even more can be accomplished.
The United Nations Conference
on Environment and Development
(UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992—'The Earth Summit'—focused
world attention on the
close links that exist between the environment and socioeconomic development.
The Summit reviewed global environmental issues and resulted in two
conventions (the Framework
Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on Biological
Diversity), as well as the Rio
Declaration and Agenda 21—plan of action. The central message of
Agenda 21 is one of interdependence and cross- sector partnership, and the
plan of action provided a new
approach to the wide-ranging socio-economic and environmental
challenges facing the world community.
The broad environmental
issues faced by the oil and gas
exploration and production industry are manifested at both local and
global levels. They include: habitat protection and biodiversity, air emissions,
marine and freshwater discharges,
incidents and oil spills, and soil and groundwater contamination.
The industry has responded to these issues. The challenge is to ensure that
all operations conform to current
The continual evolution of
the environmental agenda
must also be taken into account. Industry places much emphasis on
establishing effective management systems and has gone a long way to ensure
that environmental issues are
key components of corporate culture, with the issues related to health,
safety and environment often being considered together, because they have
much in common.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The Plant commenced operations with a total number of 1,376 staff, made
up of 138 expatriates Technical Back-Up Services (TBS), and 1,246 Nigerian
in 1999 EPCL started a gradual phase-out of the TBS Personnel as most Nigerian
staff gained adequate experience on the operation and maintenance of the
expatriate TBS Personnel the cost of about $2 million per month was abominable
as it had negative impact on the cost of operations and cash flow for the
Company. Today, the cost stands at about $0.64 million for 43 TBS Personnel.
the Eleme Petrochemicals Complex Project was started in the Project Engineering
Division of the NNPC under Mr. S. A. Kufeji as the General Manager, championed
by Dr. E. I.Onyia, as Manager Petrochemicals.
1982, the Petrochemicals Division of the NNPC was created, with Mr. 0. 0.
Lolomari as the General Manager, while Dr. E. I. Onyia continued his lead push
for the petrochemicals programme. Later that year, NNPC signed the Consultancy
Agreement with Foster Wheeler International Corporation of Reading, UK.
a major re-organization of NNPC in October 1985, Dr.T. M. John was appointed
the co-ordinator of the Petrochemical Sector. During another restructuring of
the NNPC in 1988, Dr. T. M. John became the first Managing Director of Eleme
Petrochemicals Company Limited (EPCL).
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objectives of this
element of industrial fire engineering in the prevention of fire haroccus are
• To provide an orderly
emergency response plan for all industrial workers.
• To ensure all exit routes,
emergency staircases are not obstructed and can be used in an orderly fashion
• To ensure fast, organised
and smooth evacuation of industry during emergencies.
• To train fire engineers and
emergency evacuation officers to conduct their duties successfully.
• To test the working
conditions and effectiveness of all fire and emergency equipment for all
industrys in Imo State.
Purpose and scope
The purpose of this document is to
provide an overview of
environmental issues in the oil and gas exploration and production
industry, and of the best approaches to achieving high environmental performance
in all parts of the world. It
should be noted that it covers only exploration and production
activities and does not discuss large scale storage and transportation issues, or
downstream processing. Nor does it
attempt to cover social development issues in detail, although they
are mentioned as important elements in the text, alongside ecological
This document provides an overview for
key stakeholders in industry and government.
OF THE PROBLEMS
Air pollution has been
becoming a necessary evil with rapid industrialization and urbanization around
the world, after it results in kinds of human health problems, such as
ophthalmic, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases (Brunekreef
& Holgate, 2002; Giles et al.,
Musk, 2011; Miller et
al., 2007; Nandasena,
2010). The direst threat posted
by air pollution may be its hard controlling caused by its strong flowability.
Either could it be spread from one source location to a larger region, even the
whole planet, and the sweeping radiation pollution in air originated from
Fukushima in Japan is unfortunately in this case, or conversely diluted with
changes of climatic conditions (Sample, 2007).
Among all types of
treatments of contaminants, including microbial bioremediation,
phytoremediation stands out for its benefits yielded from self-maintaining,
soil stabilization and other advantages to meet greater public approval (Doty et al.,
2007). And different
phytoremediation process is responsible for specific pollutant. Air pollutants
can be divided into anthropogenic and natural pollutants according to their
sources, or primary and secondary pollutants, which stem from reactions of
primary pollutants, when taking production process into account (UNEP, 2004).
1.7 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
hypothesis is a proposition that is stated in testable form and prediction of
particular relationship between two or more variables.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between
Ergonomic specification and the control of industrial accident rate in agro
Hi: There is great significant relationship
between Ergonomic specification and the control of industrial accident rate in
agro allied industry
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions will be treated
in the course of this research work thus:
1. What types of work are most likely to
pose fire outbreak in the industry?
2. Can carelessness of the industrial
workers in the industry result to fire outbreak
3. If yes what are the factors?
4. Can we control fire outbreak in our
7. Do you believe that Ergonomic
specification help in the control fire outbreak in the industry?
work of this nature is not easy to consummate or accomplish. And, as a result
of financial problem, time constraints, apathly on the part of respondents and
bureaucratic procedures involved in releasing data seriously affected the