research is on Advertisers Preferences of Media Channels, Problems, Choice and
Reasons (A Comparative Study of Daily Sun Newspaper and Newswatch Magazine).
This study is designed to find out the level of preferences of different advertisers
towards Daily Sun Newspaper and Newswatch Magazine. This study is divided into
five chapters in order to present a coherent work. Chapter one focuses on
background of study, Statement of Problem, Purpose of Study. Chapter two
focuses on Literature Review and Theoretical Framework. Chapter three focuses
on Research Methodology, method and Procedures used in the study. Chapter four
deals on Data Presentation and Analysis, while chapter five deals on Summary,
Conclusion and Recommendations. What the researcher has in mind is to find out
the best channel for advertising. The study proved that Daily Sun Newspaper is
more effective in advertising than Newswatch Magazine.
Title page i
Table of contents vi
Background of the study 1
Statement of problems 8
Objective of study 9
Research questions 9
Significance of study 10
Scope of the study 11
Limitation of study 11
Definition of terms 11
2.1 Introduction 15
2.2 Media selection 15
2.3 Theoretical Framework 27
of the study 32
of data 35
for data collection 35
of instrument 35
of data analysis 36
DATA INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction 37
of demographic data 37
of the finding 42
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary 43
5.2 Conclusion 43
for further studies 45
1.1 Background of Study
advertiser can be defined as a person, organization or company that places
advertisements in order to target audience or customers. The entire business of
a commercial organization or company starts with advertising. That is to say
that the rise and fall of the profit of a company depends solely on the
expenditure incurred by the advertiser.
A form of marketing
communication used to persuade an audience to take or continue some actions,
usually with respect to a commercial offering, or political or ideological
In Latin, “ad vertere”
means to “to turn toward”. The purpose of advertising may also be to reassure
employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful.
According to Wikipedia Atom Feed, Advertising
is the communication relayed from companies to persuade an audience to purchase
their products this communication is usually through various form of paid media
like TV and radio commercials, print adverts, bill boards and more recently,
Adverts are placed
where advertisers believe they will reach the largest, most relevant audience.
Commercial business use
advertising to drive the consumption of their product, while non-profit
organization may place adverts to raise awareness or encourage a change in behavior
are usually paid for by sponsors and viewed via various old media including
mass media such as newspapers, magazines, television advertisement, radio
advertisement, outdoor advertising or direct mail, or new media such as blogs,
websites or text messages.
often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services
through “branding” which involves associating a product name or image with
certain qualities in the minds of consumers.
advertisers who spend money to advertise items other than a consumer product or
service include, political parties, interest groups, religious organizations
and governmental agencies. Non-profit organizations may rely on free modes of
persuasion, such as a Public Service Announcement (PSA).
According to Jefkins
(1998-187) defines advertising media as that which supplies the vehicles for
advertising message, carrying them to the right readers, viewers, listeners or
passers by. It may also be referred to as the vehicles that propel the messages
to where they are needed”.
selection is the process of choosing the most cost – effective media for
advertising to achieve the required coverage and number of expures in a target
Media selection is typically
measured on two dimensions: frequency and spread.
In frequency, it is
insufficient for a target audience member to have just one “Opportunity To See
(OTS)” the advertisement. In traditional media, around five OTS are believed or
required for a reasonable impact. Some research shows that advertisements
require significant exposure to consumers before they can even register.
Those viewers who
receive fewer OTS are insufficiently motivated, and extra advertising is wasted
on those who receive more.
The major steps in media selection as:-
Deciding on reach,
frequency and impact, secondly, choosing among major media types. Thirdly,
Decoding on media timing.
The advertiser decides
on the reach and frequency of the media channel he is about to choose.
He further considers
the percentage of people in the target audience who are exposed to the
advertising campaign during a given period of time. Frequency refers to how
many times the average person in the target market is exposed to the message.
Media impact involves the qualitative value.
The advertiser must
decide on how to schedule the advertising over the course of the year. There
are different types of media channels open to the advertisers.
They are the Electronic
or Broadcasting Media, which includes the radio and television.
According to Neli
Kokemuller, magazines and newspapers are important print media used by
companies to deliver advertising messages. They share similarities as print
media, the strengths and weaknesses of each medium are distinct.
Newspapers tend to
offer opportunities for the broadcast range of advertisers, but magazines have
strengths in helping you connect with a specific audience.
Not minding these few
merits they still have their demerit which is now left for the advertisers to determine.
Advertisers some times
choose among magazines and newspaper based on their strength, weakness, lead
times, creativity, life span and cost effectiveness.
Magazines are typically
read by highly interested audiences because there are specific magazines for
various topics. It allows you to reach an audience that has higher potential
for persuasion if your products relate closely to the topic of the publication
magazines are however more costly than newspapers.
Newspapers on the other
hand offer affordable advert rates which benefits small businesses on a tight
However, despite the
fact that newspapers offer color, newspaper design it isn’t nearly as
captivating it diminishes as large copy runs. They are useful when reaching a
broad geographic market, but they are limited if you have a more specific
Newspapers are highly
advantageous on targeting geographic market segments. Its publications include
local, regional and national newspapers. The lead time of a newspaper is short
which an advantage.
However, magazine has
narrow audience, long-lead time and more expensive. Though they are more
creative and have longer life than newspaper.
1.2 Statement of problem
play an important role in persuading thee target audience to purchase a
companies products. That is why we say that the rise and fall of advertising
business solely depend on the expenditure incurred by advertiser.
As a result of this the researcher is
bent on finding some of the problems encountered by the advertisers while
choosing the different media of their choices.
study therefore is zeroed down to Daily Sun newspaper and Newswatch magazine.
The advertisers are faced with the challenges of choosing the between frequency
of publication, their life span and cost of effectiveness which will enable
them choose the most effective for their advertisement.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The primary aim of this
study to enable the researcher determine the most effective media channels of
The researcher at the
end of this study will be able to bring out the strength and weakness of
newspaper and magazine advertisement and give the advertiser the privilege of
choosing the media of the choice.
1.4 Research Question
Is Daily Sun and Newswatch magazine
effective for advertising?
Is the cost of advertising in Daily Sun
and Newswatch magazine affordable?
Do Daily Sun and Newswatch magazine
reach maximum number of people?
Is Daily Sun and Newswatch magazine
perfect for advertisement?
1.5 Significance of the Study
study will help advertisers and prospective advertisers to determine the best
channels to be adopted why advertising for their various companies.
It will also help to
elaborate more on the problems that advertisers face why choosing a channel of
Furthermore, it will
also serve as a literature or reference material one can consult in this area
of study if the need arises.
1.6 Scope of Study
the media channels preferred by different advertisers for there different
advertisement is a very big task. This study in order to be conclusive in its
facts finding zeroed it down to Daily Sun Newspaper and Newswatch Magazine
using few advertisers in Oko.
1.7 Limitation of Study
There are certain
factors or problems encountered by the researcher during the process of finding
and collection of data. There were some logistics problems, some respondent
were uncooperative with some questionnaire unreturned and unanswered.
1.8 Definition of Terms
terminologies in this work would be defined for the purpose of understanding
properly what the researcher means.
Those terms include:
“Advertising is the non personal communication of information usually paid for
and usually persuasive in nature about products, service or ideas by identified
sponsors through the various media” (Bovee, 1992:7).
A person organization or company that places advertisements in order to target
A printed publication (usually issued daily or weekly) consisting of folded
unstapled sheets and containing news, feature articles, advertisements and
A periodical publication containing articles and illustrations, typically
covering a particular subject or area of interest. The paper usually have
channel: specific medium used in reaching intended audience,
such as newspapers, radio station, television stations etc.
The degree to which something is successful in producing a desired result
A greater liking for one alternative over another or others.
An individual or business that purchases goods or services produced by a
business, since it is the customer who pays for supply and creates demand.
Two way process of reaching mutual understanding in which participant not
exchange (encode-decode) information, news ideas and feeling but also create
and share meaning.
The process in which the substance of a thing is completely destroyed, used up
or incorporated or transformed into something else. Consumption of good and
services is the amount of them used in a particular time period.
The process involved in creating a unique name and image for a product in the
consumer’s mind, mainly through advertising campaigns with a consistent theme.
Branding aims to establish a significant and differentiated presence in the
market that attracts and retains loyal customers.
Frequency: the number of time that an event occurs
within a given period.
segment: the process of defining and subdividing a large
homogenous market into clearly identifiable segments having similar needs,
wants, or demands characteristics.
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