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Product Code: 00006985

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The study assessed the adequacy of resources for vocational education in technical secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State. Five objectives, five research questions and two hypotheses were raised. Descriptive survey research design was adopted. The population comprised 640 respondents (6 principals and 634 teachers) from technical secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State. A sample size of 246 respondents (6 principals and 240 teachers)  participated in the study. Simple random sampling technique was used to draw the sample size. Two instruments titled "Adequacy of Resources Inventory Check-list (ARIC)" and "Adequacy of Resources Questionnaire (ARQ)" were used for data collection. The instruments were validated by three experts, from College of Education, two from Educational Management and one from Measurement and Evaluation from Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike. Reliability of the instruments were established using Split-half reliability and Cronbach alpha reliability method. ARIC and ARQ yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.98 and 0.97. Data from 246 completed copies of ARIC and ARQ were used for analysis. Percentage was used to answer research questions 1-3, while Mean and Standard deviation were used to answer research questions 4 and 5. Hypotheses were tested using t-test at 0.05 level of significant. Results showed that there is adequate teaching staff, whereas workshops and instructional facilities were not adequate. There were no significant difference between the mean responses of principals and teachers on the adequacy of funding for teaching and learning in technical secondary schools. There were resource challenges experienced in vocational education in Akwa Ibom State technical secondary schools. It was recommended that government should provide adequate workshops and instructional facilities for effective implementation of vocational education programme.



Title                                                                                                                             i

Declaration                                                                                                                  ii

Certification                                                                                                                iii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgements                                                                                                    v

Table of contents                                                                                                        vi

List of  tables                                                                                                              ix


Abstract                                                                                                                      x




1.1 Background to the Study                                                                                     1

1.2 Statement of the Problem                                                                                                 7

1.3 Purpose of the Study                                                                                            8

1.4 Research Questions                                                                                               9

1.5 Hypotheses                                                                                                           9

1.6 Significance of the Study                                                                                     10

1.7 Scope of the Study                                                                                               11

CHAPTER 2:            REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE                                        12

2.1 Conceptual Framework                                                                                         12

2.1.1 Concept of vocational and technical education                                                 12

2.1.2  Vocational education programmes in Nigeria                                                   16

2.1.3 Funding of vocational education programme                                                    19

2.1.4 The prospect of vocational education in Nigeria                                               22

2.1.5 The need for vocational education                                                                    25

2.1.6 Educational policies and vocational education                                                26

2.1.7 Challenges facing vocational education in Nigeria                                            28

2.1.8 Strategies for improving vocational education programme in Nigeria              32

2.1.9 Concept of resources in education                                                                     37

2.1.10 Adequacy of resources for vocational education                                            41

2.1.11 Adequacy of qualified teaching staff for effective vocational education     42

2.1.12 Adequacy of instructional facilities for vocational education programme      45

2.2 Theoretical Framework                                                                                         49

2.2.1 Theory of resource allocation (D. A. Norman and D. G. Bobrow, 1975)         49

2.2.2 Human capital theory (smith's, 1776)                                                                50

2.2.3 Theory of learning performance (D. S. Taylor, ND)                                          51

2.3 Empirical Studies                                                                                                  53

2.4 Summary of Related Literature                                                                            57




3.1 Design of the Study                                                                                              59

3.2 Area of the Study                                                                                                 59

3.3 Population of the Study                                                                                        60

3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                            60

3.5 Instrument for Data Collection                                                                             60

3.6 Validation of the Instruments                                                                               61

3.7 Reliability of the Instruments                                                                               61

3.8 Method of Data Collection                                                                                   62

3.9 Method of Data Analysis                                                                                     62


CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                                                    63

4.1 Discussion of the Findings                                                                                   69

4.1.1 Adequacy of teaching staff for effective vocational education                                    70

4.1.2 Adequacy of functional workshops                                                                   70

4.1.3 Adequacy of instructional facilities for practical                                               71

4.1.4 Adequacy of funding for teaching and learning                                               72

4.1.5 Resource challenges experienced in vocational education                                73



5.1 Summary                                                                                                               75

5.2 Conclusion                                                                                                            76

5.3 Educational Implication of the Findings                                                              77

5.4 Limitation of the Study                                                                                        78

5.5 Recommendations                                                                                                78

5.6 Suggestions for Further Studies                                                                           79

References                                                                                                                  80
















4.1:  The ratio rating on the adequacy of teaching staff for 

                   vocational education in technical secondary schools in Akwa Ibom

                  State.                                                                                                               63


4.2: Percentage on the adequacy of workshops in Akwa Ibom

       State technical secondary schools                                                                  64


4.3:  Percentage on the adequacy of instructional facilities for vocational

      education in technical secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State.                    65


4.4:  The Mean and standard deviation rating of the responses of teachers

                   and principals on how adequate are the funding for vocational

      education in technical secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State.                    66


4.5: The t-test Analysis on the difference between the mean responses of

      the teachers and principals on the adequacy of funding for vocational

      education in technical secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State.                    67


4.6:  The Mean and standard deviation rating of the principals and

       teachers responses on the challenges experienced in vocational

       education in Akwa Ibom State technical secondary schools.                        68


4.7:  The t-test analysis of the difference between the mean responses

      of the teachers and principals on the resource challenges experienced in vocational education in Akwa Ibom State technical secondary

       schools                                      69







Education is not a privilege, it is the right of every individual. It unlocks the development of personal and national potentials of citizens of a country and the world at large. According to Balogun (2010), education is the light without which the world would be in darkness. It is the basis for scientific and technological breakthrough which has made it an immense priority all over the world. Currently, emphasis is shifting away from the general education that encourages mere acquisition of certificates to skill based education which centers more on what one can do and the ability to apply the  requisite skills  in  a real work environment. Atchoarena (2004) posited that the debate on the knowledge economy has drawn more attention of governments to vocational education.

Vocational education is an aspect of education designed to prepare students for industry, agriculture, commerce and home economics which is usually provided at the senior secondary level. According to Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN), (2013), Vocational education is defined as that aspect of education that leads to the acquisition of practical and applied skills as well as basic scientific knowledge. In this sense, it forms a practical segment of education that will help in the development of appropriate skills and competencies to combat youth unemployment, poverty and further contribute to social transformation.                             


It is a well known fact that vocational education is a workshop based programme hence effective management of the workshop is very important for the development of students’ employable skills. Umar and Maaji (2010) posited that school workshops offer opportunities for practical training of students thus facilitating skill acquisition in their respective trade areas. Indeed, it is generally believed that the acquisition of the requisite skills is a means of increasing the productive power of a nation (Odu, 2010). Danko (2006) described vocational education as the core economy of both the individual and the society. Through acquisition of skills, individuals could explore their environment and harness the resources within it, which could serve them and the society since the wealth of the society determines to a large extent the development of that society.                                                                                             


 In Nigeria, there has been emphasis in recent times on improving vocational education in secondary schools basically for combating unemployment, poverty as well as improve the economic  performance of the nation . The goals of vocational education in Nigeria today are such that if adequately implemented will bring about the revolution of technological development in Nigeria thereby having a significant and positive impact on the national economy. These goals include provision of trained manpower in the applied sciences, technology, business particularly at craft, advanced craft and technical levels.  Others include the provision of technical knowledge and vocational skills necessary for agricultural, commercial and economic development; that will give training and impart necessary skills to individuals who shall eventually be economically self-reliant (FRN, 2013).


The fact remains, that none of these goals will be accomplished if students in schools are inadequately trained. Effective training of students cannot be accomplished in the absence of certain ingredients that create conducive environments for teaching and learning. These ingredients include the right quality and number of teachers, well equipped workshops and laboratories with up-to-date facilities, adequate tools and other materials. Omekwe (2009) noted that for effective implementation of any educational programme, adequate human and material resources must be made available to the schools. However, sufficient number of trained teachers with different types of expertise (science, language, technology, among others) must be recruited and posted to the schools where they are needed. The importance of vocational education stretches from the individual to community and beyond to the nation at large. Thus, even though the individual is the primary beneficiary of vocational education, the community or the nation eventually benefit from it as well. However, vocational education reduces drop-outs and unemployment rates by providing training opportunities to persons who are not academic oriented and not too far removed from the realities of the world of work. Experts have observed that Nigeria has an unprecedented high unemployment rate because of lack of skills among youths and few job opportunities.            


Consequently; it appears that Nigerians are schooled but unemployable because of the forms of general education they receive. Before the introduction of formal education in Nigeria, young people were trained for specific occupations and careers through an apprenticeship scheme or on-the-job training. The introduction of reading, writing and arithmetic and colonial academic education in general became associated with white collar jobs which were seen as an instrument for upward mobility in the social class. In an attempt to address this problem, the Federal Government built vocational and technical education programmes into its National Policy on education  as a strategy for effective implementation of the programme. Science education was made compulsory at primary school level and the senior secondary school segment   for those who are able and willing to have a complete six (6) years Secondary Education. Introductory Technology was made a compulsory subject at the Junior Secondary School (JSS) level with the aim of graduating students with sufficient practical skills in the areas of building technology, wood work, electricity, and electronics.


Many years after the implementation of this project, it is disheartening to observe the non-attainment of its objectives. Ulifun in Okoli and Okorie (2015), describes adequacy, maintenance and availability of resources as sine qua non for the attainment of educational goals. A key element in delivery of quality vocational education is the quality of resources for delivery of content.


Resources are tools or assets for wealth creation, innovations in the process of change, which bring improvement into the system (Ebong,2006). Resource is defined as a supply of money, materials, staff and other assets that can be drawn on by a person or organization in order to function effectively. Resources is also defined as a person, asset, material and capital which can be used to accomplish a goal. For effective delivery of quality Vocational Education (VE) programmes in Akwa Ibom State; three types of resources are necessary which include, human, financial and material resources.     


Human resources in an educational organization refers to all the human beings working in that organization, which including teachers, students, administrators and all other members of staff working in that organization. Human resources are easily recognized as the most important resource out of the resources required for the production of goods and services. Human resources are the key to rapid socio-economic development and efficient service delivery (Onah, 2008). Without an adequate, skilled and well-motivated workforce operating within a sound human resource management programme, development is not possible. Every educational system at every level depends heavily on human resources for execution of its programme. Nwaka and Ofojebe (2010) stated that teachers are the critical resources for effective implementation and realization of the educational polices and objectives at the practical level of classroom. A manager whether in private or public sector who underrates the critical role and underplays the importance of people in goal achievement can neither be effective nor efficient (Oduma, 2012). It is the teacher who ultimately interprets and implements policy as represented in the school curriculum, which is designed to actualize educational goals (Omojunwa,2007). 


Teachers are an essential resource for learning, the quality of a school system cannot exceed the quality of its teachers. Teachers interact with students daily and help students acquire the knowledge that they are expected to have by the time they leave school.  Maintaining and improving educational standards is only possible through teachers. Teachers therefore, are the most indispensable entity in the school and they are the greatest aid to learning. The shortage or poor management of teachers reduces the extent to which the curriculum can be delivered effectively. It should be noted that the major premise of human resources management in education is that the end results of the educative process will be determined by the effectiveness of the teachers who facilitate learning for self-actualization and national development. This research focus on administrators (principals) and teachers as the critical aspects of human resource commitment in education.


Financial resources are made of monetary inputs into the educational system and are the lubricant of the programme. Financial resources is defined as the monetary resource which serves as means of acquiring all the other educational resources. No policy can be implemented without financial resources ( Ebong, 2006). Finance plays a crucial role in the development of education and financial resources are directed towards the achievement of educational goals. Proper funding in combination with a good supply of qualified teachers can greatly enhance the facility index of an institution (Kosemani & Fadipo in Ebong, 2006). Financial resources are provided by the government for capital and recurrent expenditure through endowment funds from alumni and philanthropist who are helping in the different levels of education who have launched their capital campaign programmes, students' fees, loans, communal and Parent Teachers' Association contributions and commercial ventures. The federal government of Nigeria believes in the importance of education for the promotion of economic and social development in the country( Ebong, 2004 ). Though the funding of education is the responsibility shared by the federal, state and local governments, the federal government bears the greatest responsibility of funds allocated to education by each tier of government.  


Material resources refer to facilities that are use to develop and add value to people. Material resources which include instructional materials and facilities help to facilitate teaching and learning and are used to influence concrete and permanent change in technical behaviour. Instructional materials are all forms of information carriers which can be used to record, store, preserve, transmit, concretize or retrieve information for the purpose of teaching and learning (Eya, 2006). Instructional facilities for vocational and technical education encompass all basic hand tools, equipment, classrooms, workshops, laboratories, electrical and electronics instruments among others which help the learners to learn properly (Bulama, 2001). In line with this mandate, Saba (2007) sees school facilities and equipment as a pillar in support for effective teaching and learning to take place in an ideal environment. Okpanku and Uchechi (2008) believe that facilities and equipment help to stimulate interest and also enhance retention of ideas.

 This means that vocational and technical education programmes require tools and equipment that will help in the facilitation of the acquisition of occupational skills in the diverse areas of vocational technical education programmes. According to Ugwuja (2010), the students have to work in laboratories and workshops that are well equipped  with recent machines and tools like the ones they will encounter in industries, and to achieve this, adequate funding is a prerequisite for success in vocational education. 

The National Planning Commission (2007) explained that it is crucial that adequate  resources be made for the implementation of vocational education in order to promote saleable skills acquisition and employment generation possibilities. Odigbo (2005) agrees that adequate facilities ensure meaningful teaching and learning.                       


1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM                                      

Vocational education is one of the most relevant educational programmes in Nigeria considering the crucial role it plays in the social and economic development of a Nation. In this era of globalization and Information and Communication Technology (ICT), emphasis is on vocational skills for the production of self-reliant citizens who acquire the right skills needed for wider choice of jobs and career paths. Vocational Education require adequate fund for planning, implementing and coordinating vocational education programme, a good number of relevant equipments and facilities,  functional workshops, tools and accessories, well trained technical teachers to teach and man the equipments. Most Technical secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State do not seem to have well equipped laboratories, workshops, infrastructures and well trained teachers for effective vocational education in technical secondary schools. This handicap in the field of teaching, is believed to have contributed to creating room for poor implementation of vocational education programmes in technical secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State. The question now is, how does adequacy of resources contribute to vocational education in technical secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State?  Consequent upon this, this study therefore investigated the adequacy of resources for effective vocational education in technical secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State.



The purpose of the study was to examine the adequacy of resources for effective vocational education in public technical secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State Nigeria.  Specifically the study sought to:            

  1. find out the adequacy of teaching staff for vocational education in technical secondary schools.                                            
  2. determine the adequacy of workshops in technical secondary schools in technical secondary schools.           
  3. find out the adequacy of instructional facilities for vocational education in technical secondary schools.           
  4. determine the adequacy of fund for vocational education in technical secondary schools.
  5. find out resource challenges experienced in vocational education in  technical secondary schools.


The following research questions guided the study

  1. What is the adequacy of teaching staff for vocational education in technical secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State?                                                                                               
  2. How adequate are workshops in Akwa Ibom State technical secondary schools?
  3. How adequate are the instructional facilities for vocational education in technical secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State?
  4. How adequate is the funding for vocational education in technical secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State?
  5. What are resource challenges experienced in vocational education in Akwa Ibom State technical secondary schools?


The following null hypotheses guided the study at 0.05 level of significance     

HO1:    There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals and teachers on the adequacy of fund for vocational education in technical secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State?                                         

HO2:    There is no significant difference between the mean responses of principals and teachers on the resource challenges experienced in vocational education in Akwa Ibom State technical secondary schools?


The findings of the study will provide information on the adequacy of resources for vocational education in technical secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State. The findings of the study will be beneficial to the State ministry of education, educational administrators, policy makers, planners, principals, teachers, students, educational agencies and future researchers in educational management.                            

The findings of the study will be beneficial to the State Ministry of Education in the sense that the information would likely be used by the ministry of education to plan for the provision of resources in technical secondary schools. The ministry could also use the information to develop policy to address the issue of inadequate resources in schools.

The findings of the study will highlight to educational administrators, policy makers, principals and teachers the importance of having adequate resources at the dispensation of technical schools for effective implementation of their programmes.

Students in technical secondary schools will also benefit from the findings of the study in the sense that it will increase individualized learning and promote their academic performance through the provision of adequate resources.

The findings will awaken and encourage relevant educational agencies e.g National Board for Technical Education (NBTE), National Business and Technical Examination Board (NABTEB). Joint Admission Matriculation Board (JAMB) and educational policy makers like the commissioner of education to live up to their responsibilities by providing the right type of human, financial  and material resources at the right time and place for quality  teaching and learning activities in school for the realization of the objective of Education For All (EFA) in technical secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State.       

Finally, the study will be beneficial to researchers as the findings of the study would serve as a guide for future researchers in educational management who may wish to carry out a research work on the same or related topic.

The result of the findings will also be useful to educational policy makers when determining the principles that will guide policy formulation on the adequacy of resources by various institutions. The educational policy makers may also find reason to recommend, in-service training, seminar, and workshops for all principals and teachers on effective used of financial and material resources in technical secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State to promote teaching and learning.


The study was delimited to adequacy of resources for vocational education in technical secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State Nigeria. The resources the researcher considered for this study are human, material and financial resources. The independent variable was delimited to Adequacy of Resources while the dependent variable was Vocational Education.  The sub-variables are; adequacy of teaching staff, adequacy of functional workshops, adequacy of instructional facilities for vocational education, adequacy of fund for vocational education and resource challenges experienced in vocational education. The study covered all the six public technical secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State Nigeria, and the study also covered the 6 principals and 240 teachers of technical secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State Nigeria.

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