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In this study the micronutrient, phytochemicals composition, acute toxicity and antidiabetic activity of the ethanolic extracts of Alternanthera brasiliana stem, Asystesia gangetica and Abutilon mauritianum leaf were evaluated. The micronutrient and phytochemical composition were carried with standard methods of analysis. Acute toxicity study of the ethanol extracts was carried out using 30 albino mice randomly assigned into 6 groups for the treatment. For the acute and sub acute antidiabetic study, 50 adult rats were randomly divided into 5 groups and were used for each plant sample treatment. The rats were made diabetic with alloxan monohydrate. Blood glucose levels of the rats were determined. The effect of these plant samples on the hematological profile, biochemical profile, lipid profile and histopathology parameters of the rats were measured. The thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and ascorbic acid for the plant samples ranged from 0.33 to 0.07 mg/100 g, 1.96 to 0.02 mg/100 g, 0.72 to 0.01 mg/100 and 26.96 to 8.65 mg/100 g, respectively. The calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium and iron content for the plant samples ranged from 14.37 to 1.94 %, 3.83 to 2.08 %, 1.74 to 0.41 mg/100 g, 5.01 to 1.15 mg/100 g and 2.10 to 0.12 mg/100 g, respectively. The saponins, steroids, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids and hydrogen cyanide contents of the plant samples ranged from 2.88 to 6.65 %, 12.37 to 0.22 %, 6.84 to 0.01 %, 2.91 to 0.09 %, 10.86 to 1.56 % and 10.81 to 0.67 mg/g, respectively. The acute toxicity study indicated no death with and signs of toxicity in any of the groups for the 3 samples, while that of the antidiabetic study showed significant (p˂0.05) rise in the plasma glucose level in the diabetic rats when compared with the normal rats. Treatment of the diabetic rats with 400 and 800 mg/kg of the extract significantly (p˂ 0.05) reduced the blood glucose level of the diabetic rats both in acute and sub-acute treatment. The activity of the extract during acute study was incomparable to that of the reference standard drug except at 0 and 2 hour for A. brasiliana stem, 4 and 6 hours for A. gangetica sample, but was only comparable to that of the standard drug during sub-acute treatment at 7, 14 and 21 days for A. gangetica sample and at 14 day for Abutilon mauritianum sample at both doses. It was observed that the treatment with the plants extract had high % fall than the treatment done with glybenclamide. Interestingly, the treatment with 800 mg/kg had the highest value of % fall in glucose for the A. mauritianum leaf (52 %). This implied that the extract rate of lowering potentials are dose-dependent and plant type; and could replace the drug in the management of diabetes since it is safe. Also, significant (p˂0.05) differences were observed in serum lipid profile, biochemical study and hematology study while at histopathology had no significant (p˃0.05) difference when compared with diabetic control.


Title Page                                                                                                                    i

Declaration                                                                                                                  ii

Certification                                                                                                                iii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgements                                                                                                    v

Table of Contents                                                                                                       vi-x

List of Tables                                                                                                              xi

List of Figures                                                                                                             xiv

List of Plates                                                                                                               xv

Abstract                                                                                                                      xvii




1.1       Statement of Problem                                                                                      5

1.2       Objective                                                                                                         6

1.3       Significance                                                                                                    7




2.1       Diabetes Mellitus                                                                                            8

2.1.1    Types of diabetes mellitus                                                                              10

2.1.2    Predisposing factors of diabetes mellitus                                                       13

2.1.3    Diabetes mellitus signs and symptoms                                                           13

2.1.4    Diabetes mellitus long-term complications                                                     14

2.1.5    Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus                                                                        15

2.1.6    Diabetes mellitus management                                                                       17

2.1.7    Diabetes mellitus prevention                                                                           22

2.2       Brazilian Joy Weed (Alternanthra brasiliana)                                                23

2.2.1    Nutritional composition of red flower                                                            24

2.3       Akpu-arachi (Asystesia gangetica)                                                                  27

2.3.1    Nutritional composition and uses of Asystesia gangetica                               28

2.4       Udor (Abutilon mauritianum)                                                                         31

2.4.1    Nutritional composition and uses of udor                                                      31

2.5       Related Review on Plant Extract in Antidiabetic Studies                             34





3.1       Experimental Design                                                                                       37

3.2       Collection, Identification and Preparation of Plant Material                         37

3.3       Preparation of Plant Extract                                                                           38

3.4       Animal Collection and Preparation                                                                 38

3.5       Acute and Sub – acute Anti-diabetic Study of the Plant Extract                  39

3.6       Acute Toxicity Studies                                                                                   39

3.7       Chemical Composition Analysis (minerals and vitamins)                               40

3.7.1    Calcium and magnesium content determination                                             40

3.7.2    Iron content determination                                                                             41

3.7.3    Potassium content determination                                                                    41

3.7.4    Phosphorous content determination                                                               42

3.7.5    Vitamin B1 (thiamine) determination                                                              43

3.7.6    Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) determination                                                            44

3.7.7    Vitamin B3 (niacin) determination                                                                  45

3.7.8    Vitamin C determination                                                                                46

3.8       Phytochemical Composition Analysis                                                46

3.8.1    Determination of flavonoids                                                                           46

3.8.2    Determination of alkaloids                                                                             47

3.8.3    Determination of steroids                                                                               48

3.8.4    Determination of tannins                                                                                48

3.8.5    Determination of saponnins                                                                            49

3.8.6    Determination of cyanogenic glycoside                                                         50

3.9       Hematological Studies                                                                                    50

3.10     Biochemical Profile Test                                                                                 51

3.10.1  Serum creatinine                                                                                             51

3.10.2  Serum urea                                                                                                      52

3.10.3  Determination of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity            52

3.10.4     Determination of alanine transferase (ALT) or glutamate pyruvate           

    transaminase (GPT) activity                                                                        53


3.10.5     Determination of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity                                53

3.10.6    Quantitative determination of serum total bilirubin                                    54

3.10.7     Determination of total protein                                                                     54

3.10.8      Serum albumin (alb) concentration                                                             55

3.11         Lipid Profile                                                                                                56

3.11.1      Serum cholesterol determination                                                                56

3.11.2      Triacylglycerol determination                                                                     57

3.11.3      HDL-cholesterol determination                                                                  58

3.12         Histopathology Study                                                                                 59

3.13         Data and Statistical Analysis                                                                      60





4.1       The Vitamin Composition of the Fresh, Dried and Ethanol Extract

Samples of Herbal Stem and Leave                                                                61

4.2       Mineral Composition of the Fresh, Dried and Ethanolic Extract

Samples of Herbal Stem and Leave                                                                65

4.3       Phytochemical Composition of the Fresh, Dried and Ethanol Extract

Samples of Herbal Stem and Leave                                                                70

4.4       Acute Toxicity Studies                                                                                   74

4.5       Acute Anti-diabetic Study of the Herbal Stem and Leaf Ethanolic Extract

 Samples                                                                                                          76

4.6       Percentage Fall in Blood Glucose Level in Acute Antidiabetic

Study of Alternanthera brasiliana Stem, Asystesia gangetica and

Abutilon mauritianum Ethanolic Extract                                                        80


4.7       Sub-acute Anti-diabetic Study of Ethanolic Extract Samples of

Alternanthera brasiliana Stem, Asystesia gangetica Leaf and

Abutilon mauritianum Leaf                                                                             84

4.8       Percentage Fall in Blood Glucose Level after 21 days for

Alternanthera brasiliana Stem, Asystesia gangetica and Abutilon

mauritianum Ethanolic Extract                                                                       89

4.9       Biochemical Profile of the Anti-diabetic Study of Ethanolic Extracts          91

4.10     Lipid Profile of the Anti-diabetic Study of Ethanolic Extracts                     98

4.11     Hematology Profile Blood Test of Anti-diabetic Study of Ethanolic

Extract Samples                                                                                              102

4.12     Histopathological Examination of the Liver Tissue                                        107

4.13     Histopathological Examination of Pancreatic Tissue                                      118







5.1       Conclusion                                                                                                      130

5.2       Recommendations                                                                                          130














2.1       Diagnostic criteria of diabetes mellitus                                                           17

2.2       Phytochemical constituents of A. brasiliana                                                  28

2.3       The nutritional composition of Asystasia gangetica leaves

per 100 g edible portion                                                                                  32

4.1       Vitamin composition of fresh, dried and ethanolic extract

samples of Alternanthera brasiliana stem in mg/100 g                                   62

4.2       Vitamin composition of fresh, dried and ethanolic extract

samples of Asystesia gangetica leaf in mg/100 g                                            63

4.3       Vitamin composition of fresh, dried and ethanolic extract

samples of Abutilon mauritianum leaf in mg/100 g                                        64

4.4       Mineral composition of fresh, dried and ethanolic extract

samples of Alternanthera brasiliana stem (mg/100 g)                                    66

4.5       Mineral composition of fresh, dried and ethanolic extract

samples of Asystesia gangetica leaf (mg/100 g)                                              67

4.6       Mineral composition of fresh, dried and ethanolic extract

samples of Abutilon mauritianum leaf (mg/100 g)                                          68

4.7       Phytochemical composition of fresh, dried and ethanolic extract

samples of Alternanthera brasiliana stem                                                       71

4.8       Phytochemical composition of fresh, dried and ethanolic extract

samples of Asystesia gangetica leaf                                                                72

4.9       Phytochemical composition of fresh, dried and ethanolic extract

samples of Abutilon mauritianum leaf                                                            73

4.10     Acute toxicity studies of the ethanolic extract samples of

Alternanthera brasiliana stem, Asystesia gangetica leaf and

Abutilon mauritianum leaf                                                                              75

4.11     Acute antidiabetic study of Alternanthera brasiliana stem ethanolic

extract                                                                                                                         77

4.12     Acute hypoglycemic study of Asystesia gangetica leaf ethanolic

extract                                                                                                                         78

4.13     Acute hypoglycemic study of Abutilon mauritianum leaf ethanolic

extract                                                                                                                         79

4.14     Sub-acute antidiabetic  study of Alternanthera brasiliana stem

ethanolic extract                                                                                              85

4.15     Sub-acute antidiabetic study of Asystesia gangetica leaf ethanolic

extract                                                                                                             86

4.16     Sub-acute antidiabetic study of Abutilon mauritianum leaf ethanolic

Extract                                                                                                            87


4.17     Percentage fall in glucose level after 21 days for Alternanthera

brasiliana stem, Asystesia gangetica and Abutilon mauritianum

leaf samples respectively                                                                                 90

4.18     Biochemical profile of sub-acute study of Alternanthera brasiliana

stem ethanolic extract                                                                                   92

4.19     Biochemical profile of sub-acute study of Asystesia gangetica leaf

ethanolic extract                                                                                              93

4.20     Biochemical profile of sub-acute study of Abutilon mauritianum leaf

ethanolic extract                                                                                              94

4.21     Lipid profile of sub-acute study of Alternanthera brasiliana stem

ethanolic extract in mg/dl                                                                               99

4.22     Lipid profile of sub-acute study of Asystesia gangetica leaf ethanolic

extract in mg/dl                                                                                               100

4.23     Lipid profile of sub-acute study of Abutilon mauritianum leaf ethanolic

extract in mg/dl                                                                                               101

4.24     Hematology profile blood test of anti-diabetic sub-acute study

of Alternanthera brasiliana stem ethanolic extract                                         104

4.25     Hematology profile blood test of anti-diabetic sub-acute study of

Asystesia gangetica leaf ethanolic extract                                                       105

4.26     Hematology profile blood test of anti-diabetic sub-acute study of

Abutilon mauritianum leaf ethanolic extract                                                   106









4.1       Percentage fall in blood glucose level in acute antidiabetic study of

Alternanthera brasiliana stem ethanolic extract                                             81

4.2       Percentage fall in blood glucose level in the acute antidiabetic study

of Asystesia gangetica ethanolic extract                                                         82

4.3       Percentage fall in blood glucose level in the acute antidiabetic study

of Abutilon mauritianum ethanolic extract                                                     83











2.1       Red flower (Alternanthera brasiliana)                                                           25

2.2       Akpu-arachi (Asystesia gangetica)                                                                  29

2.3       Udor (Abutilon mauritianum)                                                                         333

4.1       Liver  slide for normal control rats                                                                 109

4.2       Liver slide for diabetic untreated                                                                   110

4.3       Liver slide for diabetic rats treated with 5 mg/kg glybenclamide                  111

 4.4      Liver slide for diabetic rats treated with 400 mg/kg  Alternanthera

Brasiliana                                                                                                        112

4.5       Liver slide for diabetic rats treated with 800 mg/kg  Alternanthera

Brasiliana                                                                                                        113

4.6       Liver slide for diabetic rats treated with 400 mg/kg  Asystesia gangetica    114

4.7       Liver slide for diabetic rats treated with 800 mg/kg  Asystesia gangetica    115

4.8       Liver slide for diabetic rats treated with 400 mg/kg  Abutilon mauritianum 116

4.9       Liver slide for diabetic rats treated with 800 mg/kg  Abutilon mauritianum 117

4.10     Pancreatic slide for normal control rats                                                          119

4.11     Pancreatic slide for diabetic untreated                                                           120

4.12     Pancreatic slide for diabetic rats treated with 5 mg/kg glibenclamide           121

4.13     Pancreatic slide for diabetic rats treated with 400 mg/kg Alternanthera

brasiliana                                                                                                        122

4.14     Pancreatic slide for diabetic rats treated with 800 mg/kg Alternanthera

brasiliana                                                                                                        123

4.15     Pancreatic slide for diabetic rats treated with 400 mg/kg Asystesia

gangetica                                                                                                         124    

4.16     Pancreatic slide for diabetic rats treated with 800 mg/kg Asystesia

gangetica                                                                                                         125    

4.17     Pancreatic slide for diabetic rats treated with 400 mg/kg Abutilon

mauritianum                                                                                                    126

4.18     Pancreatic slide for diabetic rats treated with 800 mg/kg Abutilon

mauritianum                                                                                                    127










Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease with life-threatening complications. It was estimated by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) that 285 million people are living with diabetes, in 2010 showing that about 6.4 % of the world populace had diabetes and by 2030, the prevalence rate will increase to 439 million people amounting to about 7.7 % of the world population (Shaw et al., 2010). Over 90 % of the cases of diabetes are diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2D) (Boyle et al., 1999; Attele et al., 2002).


The management of diabetes mellitus is associated with a huge economic cost for the afflicted people and countries. In 2007, approximately 17.5 million people living with diabetes mellitus were reported to have spent about US 174 billion dollars in the management of diabetes mellitus (Cashen et al., 2008). However, in Nigeria, about 1-7 % of the populace is afflicted with diabetes mellitus (Wokoma, 2002; Fabiyi et al., 2002).


Despite considerable progress in scientific studies on T2D and research and development of anti-diabetics agents, yet the cause is not completely understood. Though, mounting facts from epidemiological research finding suggests that the primary causes of T2D remain environmental and genetic factors. Both factors are the contributing factor to insulin resistance and loss of β-cells function that result in impairment in insulin action, insulin production, or both. The occurrence of hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus is due to impairment in insulin action (Laakso, 2001). Such hyperglycemia results to glucotoxicity which affects the cells and peripheral tissues, which are clinically important in the cause of diabetes-related complications such as cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, retinal blindness, neuropathy, and peripheral gangrene (Clement and Bell, 1985). Therefore, the most effective therapy for people living with diabetes mellitus is the maintenance of glycemic homeostasis. Moreover, the formation of lipotoxicity due to abnormal adipose lipid metabolism promotes complications in diabetes. The pancreatic cells play essential role in glycemic homeostasis. Leahy et al. (2010) reported that the β-cells function and survival are modulated by inflammatory mediators, glucotoxicity, oxidative stress, Lipotoxicity and incretin. Currently, there are no clinically proven anti-diabetic drugs effective in the prevention of β-cells degeneration. Though thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and glucagon-like peptides-1 (GLP-1) analogues have been proved to be effective in preventing β-cells atrophy in animals but not in humans yet (Gastaldelli et al., 2007).

Therefore, when the β-cell function is maintained and improved, it has the ability to delay, stabilize and reverse diabetes mellitus type 2 (Leahy et al., 2010). It has been proposed that β-cell homeostasis is regulated by nuclear factors, specific growth factors and cell cycle mediators (Ackermann and Gannon, 2007 and Szabat et al., 2012).  The occurrence of unwanted and harmful effect in diabetes type 2 patients is due to loss of glycemic control. Consequently, reduction of kidney and gut glucose absorption is required for the normalization of blood sugar in other to maintain glycemic homeostasis in diabetic patients. Additionally, blood sugar level can be reduced by inhibiting intestinal carbohydrate breakdown by α-glucosidases. Contrarily, about 90 % of urine glucose is recovered by the renal tubule which helps the body to maintain glucose homeostasis.

Glycemic control is the most accepted approach for diabetes mellitus type 2 treatments in an attempt to lessen complications and death. Apart from drugs, lifestyle and diet are very significant approach in the management of diabetes mellitus and should not be neglected. The lack of efficiency and undesirable side effect make the current anti-diabetic drugs unsuitable and require alternative (Howlett and Bailey, 1999). An insulin secretagogues that cause hypoglycemia, weight gain and unable to prevent death of cell are good examples of negative side effect of antidiabetic drug (Krentz and Bailey, 2005; Purnell and Weyer, 2003). More so, an incretin-based drugs cause vomiting, sour stomach, diarrhea, belching, nausea and indigestion (Egan et al., 2003). There is an inability for daily insulin injection to match the natural insulin dosage and timing from the pancreas with response to hyperglycemia arising from severe complications in well-managed patients. Besides, the above stated side effect of drugs, it also has major limitation of not being able to cure the diabetes mellitus disease but to alleviate it. In other to ensure the safety of the people living with diabetes mellitus, it becomes a necessity to develop alternative antidiabetic medicine that will be devoid of the above stated challenges with suitable efficiency.


Plants have a key role in health care. WHO reported that about 80 % of the world’s populations are dependent on traditional medicine, particularly plant drugs for primary health care. Herbs were used to treat different types of disease conditions before the birth of traditional Western medicine (Basch et al., 2003). A number of plants have shown varying degrees of hypoglycemic and anti-diabetic activities (Onoagbe et al., 1999a; Onoagbe et al., 1999b), and hundreds of such plants are in common use. However, so many of them have not been scientifically proven to have anti-diabetic activities or either been checked on its dosage-dependent effect.


Akpu-arachi (Asystesia gangetica) commonly known as ganges primrose, Chinese violet from family of Acanthaceae is a herb (Adeyemi et al., 2011). It is called Ganges because it is obtained from the river name called Gange where it is assumed that the species exist. The Marathi name Lavana valli (another common name) means salt resistant creeper (also called akpu-arachi by the Igbos). Ganges is a herbaceous ground cover plant that grows to the height of 30-60 cm. it has a cream colored flower with tessellated purple mark on the palate that makes the plant very attractive. It also grows fast and spreads easily with dark green leaves. Over a long period of time the flowers are produced followed by brown seeds capsules (Ramesar et al., 2008). In tropical areas it can grow rampantly. This plant is widely distributed across South Asia, tropical America, Sub-Saharan Africa, Oceania, etc. The edible parts include the tender leaves and stems which are eaten fresh, stir-fried or boiled. Akpu-arach (Astystasia gangetica) is reported to contain biologically active substances such as carbohydrates, proteins, alkaloids, tannins, steroidal aglycones, saponins, flavonoids and triterpenoids (Akah et al., 2003). And also, has been claimed by a known local herbalist in Nsulu Oloko village in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State Nigeria to have anti-diabetic effect.

Udor (Abutilon mauritianum) is of the family of Malvaceae. It is widely found in the drier parts of the Senegal, Mozambique, Ethiopia, Somalia, South Africa, Angola, Zambia and Zimbabwe (Burkill, 1985) and Nigeria. The plants vernacular names are Bush Mallow and country mallow in English, Mauves des champs in French, Furu and Kawo in Nigerian traditional languages (locally called Udor in Igbo land). It is a perennial shrub with stem that turns woody. It grows from 0.5-2 meters tall with occasional specimens reaching a height of 3.5 meters. It is found in riverine forest; river-banks; roadsides, etc; very common in red soils at forest edges and on the coast in bush land on coral (Kenya) (Bernard, 2003); rice-fields (Nigeria); from sea level to 2,300 meters. The leaves are edible and broadly utilized in African traditional medicine. Modern research has demonstrated the presence of bioactive compounds in the plant – saponins, flavonoids, tannins and alkaloids have all been reported in the leaf (Rajalakshmi and Kalaiselvi, 2009).


Brazilian Joyweed (Alternanthera brasiliana) from the family of Amaranthacecae, is a common weed that grows wild and abundantly in Mexico, Brazil and West Indies. It is usually used in homes and offices as a decorative plant (Aaawan et al., 2011). From ethno medical sources (Brazilian folk medicine), it is alleged to be used to treat variety of ailments and researches have been undertaken to prove its wound healing properties (Baru et al., 2012) and its antimicrobial activities (Macedo et al., 1999). However, no available record has indicated any research findings on its anti-diabetic activity.


The scientific mind will not be satisfied by mere claims no matter from whatever source they originate, unless corroborated by experimental and clinical evidences. As it is evident that plants are treasure house for many potent medicines, it is important to scientifically evaluate the traditional practices as well as upgrade the existing knowledge and make it accessible to the universal public. A good number of popularly used Nigerian plants have not been scientifically-scrutinized for their efficacy and anti-diabetic properties (Onoagbe et al., 1999). This present investigation is an extension of the continuing research efforts at providing the requisite scientific information on the therapeutic value of some medicinal plants and its anti-diabetic claims.


            1.1              STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

 Diabetes is one of the commonest and leading causes of death in Nigeria and the globe. Its prevalence is based on the fact that it affects both old and young, and equally rich and poor alike (Adodo, 2009). It is estimated that about 150 million of the world population is diabetic and this number is likely to increase to 300 million or more by the year 2025 (King et al., 1998). Its greatest occurrence is in Africa and Asia where diabetes mellitus rates could rise to 2-3 folds than the present rates (ADA, 1997). In Nigeria, about 1-7 % of the population is affected (Wokoma, 2002; Fabiyi et al., 2002). According to a Nigerian Non-communicable disease survey, a prevalence rate of about 2.2 % for diabetes mellitus is reported (Akinkugbe, 1997). Diabetes can lead to blindness, kidney failure, and nerve damage (Wokoma, 2002). These types of damage are the result of damage to small vessels, referred to as micro vascular disease. Diabetes is also an important factor in accelerating the hardening and narrowing of the arteries (atherosclerosis), leading to strokes, coronary heart disease, and other large blood vessel diseases (Wokoma, 2002). This is referred to as macro vascular diseases. Diabetic patients are at increased risk of developing specific complications including: nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy and atherosclerosis (Rahman et al., 2005). Traditional use of anti-diabetic plants in the form of herbal remedies for management of diabetes mellitus is usually faced with the challenge of poor acceptance. This is because they are often served as concentrated extracts which are usually associated with bitter, sour or astringent taste as well as leafy flavor, dull appearance which make them unacceptable and general belief that herbs are toxic to the liver. Examining the micronutrient, phytochemical components, toxicity and the anti-diabetic effect of these plants will validate the claims by the local healers and also serve as an encouragement on their usage for diabetes mellitus management.


            1.2              AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The aim of this study is to investigate micronutrient, phytochemical components, acute toxicity and the anti-diabetic effects of the ethanolic extracts of Alternanthra brasiliana stem, Asystesia gangetica and Abutilion mauritianum leaves in albino mice and Alloxan-induced diabetic rats, respectively.



Specific objectives:

1.                  To extract and concentrate the herbal plant leaves and stem into semi-solid form.

2.                  To determine the chemical and phytochemical composition of the fresh and dried herbal powder, and herbal ethanolic extract.        

3.                  To determine the acute toxicity of the herbal products.

4.                  To determine the anti-diabetic properties of the ethanolic plant extracts on the alloxan-induced diabetic rats.



There is a growing interest in the use of plant extracts to treat chronic metabolic diseases. More so, in Africa, drugs for diabetic therapy and management are quite expensive and unaffordable to the larger population; this underscores the use of locally available medicinal plants as a remedy. This research provided scientific evidence to the effectiveness of these herbs in management of diabetes mellitus, and also provided information with respect to their safety based on their dosage. Furthermore, the findings may proffer sustainable alternative to the use of synthetic drugs used for management of diabetes mellitus.



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