role of manpower planning and development in promoting sustainable development
of any nation cannot be underestimated. The socio-economic and political
development of Nigeria to a large extent depends on the quality and quantity of
existing human resources. This led to the establishment of National Manpower
Board (NMB) in 1962 and other subsequent agencies to undertake responsibilities
of the Human resource development. Though ideals do not approximate reality,
today manpower planning and staff development in Nigerian public sectors had
become history. This is partly the nature of dynamics of our political and
economic environment, and other internal variables. The implication of this
development for Nigeria development in the next century is a mirage. This is
because without effective manpower planning and systematic staff development
strengthened by deliberate policy and utilization of what has been built;
Nigerian development in next century is still a mirage. It is against the
backdrop that makes this study imperative. The study is conducted into five
chapters. Chapter one deals with the introduction, statement of problem,
significance of study, scope and limitation of study, the existing literature
on the topic was reviewed in second chapter, it also involve hypotheses and
theoretical framework; in chapter three, research design, method of data
collection, method of data presentation and analysis were discussed. In chapter
four, data collected from the field work were presented and analyzed. The
researcher generally summarized the issues on the topic and proffer solution on
the identified problems which involve the use of strategic manpower planning
process, systematic training, and computerized method in data management in
Title page- - - - -
Certification - -
Dedication - - -
Acknowledgment- - - - -
Abstract - - - -
Table of Contents - - -
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study - - -
- - 1
1.2 Statements of the Problem- - -
- - 5
1.3 Objectives of the Study - - - -
- - 9
1.4 Significance of the Study - - -
1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study - - -
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Literature Review- -
2.1.1 Manpower Planning.- -
2.1.2 Importance of Manpower Planning - - -
2.1.3 Strategy or Approach to Human Resource Planning.- - -
2.1.4. Manpower Forecasting - - - - - -
2.1.5 Techniques for Determining Human Resources
Requirements- - 36
2.1 .6 Manpower Development
and Utilization- -
2.1.7 Importance of
Manpower Development- -
2.1.8 Method for
Manpower Development in Public Sectors-
2.2 Hypotheses- - -
- - -
of Key Concepts - - -
Framework- - - -
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
Background of Local Government in Enugu
3.1.2 The Organization
Structure of Local Government in Enugu
3.2 Research Design - - - - -
3.3 Population of Study - - -
3.4 Sample and Sample Techniques - -
3.5 Method of the Data Collection - - - -
3.5.1 Primary Sources - -
3.5.2 Secondary Sources
- - -
3.5 3 Reliability and
Validity of Research Instrument -
3.5.4 Administration of
Questionnaire- - -
3.6 Method of Data
Presentation and Analysis- -
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
Presentation - - - - -
4.2 Findings - - -
4.3 Discussion and
Analysis of Finding. - - -
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Summary- - - -
Recommendation - - -
5.3 Conclusions - - -
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
are cardinal element of development. The overall development of a country
revolves on the level of manpower utilization. This has made manpower planning
and development imperative for any successful organization. Maintaining a
competitive edge in any segment where multiple players exist is only possible
with people and talent. It has got an important place in the arena of
industrialization. Manpower planning and development are two important pillars
for achieving effectiveness and efficiency in organization.
It has been observed that both pre
and post-colonial administrations of Nigeria had failed to accord adequate
regard to manpower planning and development. Labour was relegated to background
among other factors of production. The human resources planning and staff
development for national growth and development were distorted. These affected
the availability of human resources for improvement of socio-economic and
political development during the first and second national development planning.
This was made clearly in Nnadozie (2004), he states
thus; the unrealistic nature of the 1962-68 plan objectives and targets become
more apparent when they are juxtaposed with the financial, technical and
managerial capabilities of the country.
In recognition of the needs for human resources
planning led to introducing of the policy for Manpower Planning and Development
in Nigeria at the period of 1960’s and 70’s. Specifically, in the year 1962,
federal republic of Nigeria created National manpower board (NMB) with the
responsibility for determining the manpower needs and developments. To enhance
the manpower need in local government, federal military Government in 1978
selected three universities, University Nigeria, Nsukka, Obefemi Awolowo
University, Ile-Ife and Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
Though ideals do not
approximate reality, the socio-economic and political development of Nigeria
state has become elusive due to inappropriate and inadequate manpower planning
and development. Planning in Nigerian public service has become a gambling
affair. Public service in Nigeria especially local government usually embark on
manpower planning with inadequate data on the evolutionary trends of an
organization, partly on organization’s personnel, external relations, and
general organization’s objectives.
Development of workers is no longer
a matter of a necessity to much management as a result of inability to forecast
future manpower needs in relation to the organizations’ objectives. Training in
local government, despite the selection of the universities named above to
under take training of local government workers; training is still sporadic,
unstructured and unsystematic. There is little emphasis on training for
technical and professional staff; such as surveyors, accountants, engineer and
doctors. This finally retards the progress of an organization.
The resources of organization are
diverse but human resources is recognized as the most important out of other
resources required for effective and efficient service delivery in local government. Human resources are the key
to rapid socio-economic development and efficient service delivery. In
addition, Mwagbala (2005) posits that “it is Human resources of a nation not
its capital, nor its material resources that determines the nature of,
direction and pace of its socio-economic development. Essentially, nations are
built through the creative, productive and innovative hardworking of people. At
best financial resources can only facilitates production, but real wealthy is
increased by productive labour activity.
The quality of company’s personnel
is the single factor that determines whether the organization is going to be
successful, whether the organization will realize a satisfactory return on its
investment and whether it will reach its basic objectives.
Getting the right caliber of people through the
process of recruitment to meet the organization’s need is not just enough; this
makes manpower development crucial in an organization. Development of employees
in enterprises is associated with long run profitability of organization.
Organizational effectiveness is strengthened through workforce development. In
other words, it improves employee’s productivity and increases their loyalty to
the company and their job satisfaction. Manpower development is a link between
the manpower planning and organizations objectives.
In analysis of the above,
manpower planning and development are necessary for effective productivity,
growth and development. Unless there is planning, event is left to a chance
affair, planning minimize risk while taking advantage of opportunities. When
adequate arrangement are not being made for future manpower needs of the
organization, the organization find itself fighting with emergencies as the
manpower needs arises. This may definitely resulted in spending more money for
hiring manpower. It also results in procuring wrong personnel which may have
devastating effects on the organization.
In a critical
analyses of the above, manpower planning and development are path way to
sustainable development. In view of this, both private sector and public have
to embrace manpower planning and development if Nigeria really wants promote
sustainable development. Local government which is regarded as non-functioning
sector will turn to functioning sector if adequate emphasis would be accord to
manpower planning and development.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The quality and quantity of services
delivery of local government for two decade now had generated national crisis.
There have been sharp drop in effectiveness and efficiency with which local
governments discharge their constitutional responsibilities. This is justified
by pathetic nature of the high rates of under development in our rural areas.
This is as a result of nonchalant attitude of the management and government
over human resources planning and development which are essential for any
organization which wants to remain relevant in our dynamic society. Organization is established in order to
achieve stated objectives or goals. To achieve these objectives, effective
human resources must be in place. Since every organization depends on its
employees for its survival and accomplishment of its task, manpower planning
and development are crucial in all organizations be it private or public
sectors especially in local governments where their constitutional
responsibilities appear elusive.
Paradoxically in our contemporary society, emphasis
has shifted from manpower planning and staff development to controlling and
sharing of the national cake meant for implementation of the development
projects. Human resources planning are considered as luxury affairs and human
resources supply is seen as an elastic item which can be expanded anywhere leading
to acute neglect of manpower planning.
Recruitment in local government
has turned to political patronage for political aspirant and party loyalist.
This has a negative impact on the performance or productivity of organization.
Some organizations that embarked on planning usually end up not achieving the
objectives as result of inadequate and inaccurate data on personnel profile and
on projected objectives. Poor data management abounds in local government
because of lack of adequate skilled employee and continued use of manual
/filing methods. These have adverse affect on manpower planning.
Furthermore, there is highly
recognized poor human resources development and utilization in various public
organizations. There is growing evidence that lack of investment in the
development and training of workers is associated with the long-run bankruptcy
of organization. In addition, inadequate development of employees contributed
to poor performance of local governments in Nigeria. This is traceable to poor human
resources management. Human resources management according to Mathis and
Jackson (1977) is the design of formal system in an organization to ensure
effective use of human talent to accomplish organizational objectives. It is a
set of activities directed to attracting development, utilizing and maintaining
an effective workforce.
In view of
the above, manpower planning, recruitment and selection, training and
development, promotion and compensation which are the critical aspects of human
resources management had been neglected and manipulated by incompetent
analysis of relevant data on the performance of local government in Nigeria in
this our contemporary society expose to its totality the chaotic situation
which pervaded the whole system as result of negative attitude to human
resources planning and development.
Many key officials occupying
sensitive positions in local government are new entrants in the system, the
worst of it all is that they lack pre-requisite of administration. They assumed
the positions through Nigeria system of “whom do you know” and political
patronage. Performance of organization cannot be explained to large extent
outside those that operate it. This leads to sharp decline in quality and quantity
of service delivery.
It is in
responds of the above back drop that makes manpower planning and development
imperative in this study. The place of manpower planning and development cannot
be compromise in the achievement of development in
The following research questions
What is appropriate manpower planning process for
effective service delivery in local government service?
Does recruitment of unqualified personnel influence
productivity of local government?
What is the relationship between development of
employee in local government services and employee’s performance?
What are measures to improve manpower planning process
and staff development?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF
The general objective of this study is to explore
the manpower planning and development in Nigeria public service with the view
to improve higher productivity in local government.
Specific objective include:
To identify manpower planning process and its impacts
To examine building of employee’s capabilities as a
tool of inducing workers for maximum productivity.
To investigate the relationship between the recruitment
of right caliber of employee and quality and quantity of service delivery.
To identify improve manpower planning process and staff
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study lies
on its functional objectives. This research study is very much imperative for
our national development. This is because development of any country depends
largely on its human resources.
Theoretically, in our contemporary
society in which research form the basis for academic study, this research work
constitute a veritable research material in all field of study as manpower is
essential in all endeavor. In line with the above, it is necessary in
sensitizing those in the realm of affairs of education on the needs to
strengthen the school curriculum to incorporate and enhance the study of human
resources planning and development in all administrative and management courses
as manpower planning is crucial for national development.
This study is also necessary in
propelling the policy maker to integrate manpower planning and staff
development with overall national development plan as national objectives inform
manpower planning, and national objectives / goals cannot be realized without
operating under sound human resources. In addition the research will also
instigate them to make policy that will push both private and public
organization to embrace. Furthermore, it will also activate other researcher to
undertake comprehensive research on manpower planning and staff development
which will also improve the development of this country.
Empirically, the research work
really is a problem solving tool in our society. The major aim of this research
work is to accelerate growth and development in our rural as development is
synonymous with productivity, and productivity in organization is achieved
through suitable human resources. And quality human resources in any
organization in a right number and in a suitable job are stemmed from
appropriate and adequate manpower planning process.
Specifically, local government in
Nigeria are regarded as non relevant because of
its inability to influences the development in rural areas, this problem
of local government will be alleviated as appropriate manpower planning process
will help to eradicate problem of unqualified employee’s. Adequate manpower
planning will help to balance manpower requirement in local governments with
their constitutional responsibilities.
Furthermore, the data management problem in the
local government will also be ameliorated, poor data management had constituted
obstacle to adequate manpower forecasting, action plan and implementation. This
study helps to introduce the computerized method in data management which will
ease the problems of delay in their employee’s management function and local
government working with inaccurate data in efforts towards realization of their
Essentially, it will help in inducing the management
of organization in investing in staff development as there is growing evidence
that investment in training staff is associated with long run profitability of
1.5 SCOPE AND
LIMITATION OF STUDY
This study focuses on manpower planning and
development in local government, specifically in Enugu state. The researcher
examined the staff recruitment, selection, placement, staff training and
The constraints to this research
are numerous. A lot of the finance was
required to investigate extensively the extent manpower planning and
development was being carried out in all the seventeen (17) local governments
in Enugu state. As result of that the researcher covered three local
governments, namely; Nsukka local government, Igbo-Eze south local government,
and Igbo-Eze north local government.
In addition the study lasted for
12months which is not enough for researcher to embark on thorough research in
all the local governments. In view of that, the study covered only local
government listed above. The problem, the researcher also encountered was that
some officials refused to avail themselves for interview for fear that the
information given might put their job in jeopardy. To overcome this problem,
the researcher had to explain to them critically the main purpose of research
as well as assuring them of their anonymity.
These difficulties notwithstanding,
the researcher made profound efforts to ensure that the project was
comprehensively carried out to meet the desired needs.
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