This study was carried out to survey
the knowledge of primary school pupils on communicable diseases in Kwara State.
Two hundred respondents got through the use of purposive random sampling
technique were selected from four schools that formed the research population.
The instrument used to obtain information for the research was structured
questionnaire, while frequency and percentage were used in the analysis.
Results showed that pupils knew hat
communicable diseases were and the causes but many didn’t know the control
measures of these diseases.
Among the recommendations given was
that more efforts should be made at this background level of education to bring
awareness to pupils on ways to control these diseases.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE i
TABLE OF CONTENTS vii
LIST OF TABLES x
LIST OF FIGURES (If any) xi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Study 4
Purpose of the Study 5
General Questions 6
Research Questions 6
Significance of the Study 7
Delimitation of the Study 8
Definition of Terms 9
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED
Meaning of Communicable/Infectious
School Problem 17
Classification of Disease Pathogens 17
How to find out an Infectious Disease
Types/Classification of Communicable
according to Causative Agents And
mode of Spread 21
Selected Infectious Diseases 22
Transmission of Infectious Diseases 25
Preventing Transmission of
Communicable Diseases 31
Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases 33
Symptoms of Communicable Diseases 34
Prevention and Control of
Communicable Diseases 35
Summary of Literature Review 46
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
Research Design 50
Sample and Sampling Techniques 51
Research Instrument 51
Validity of the instrument 52
Reliability of the instrument 53
Administration of the Instrument 53
Data Analysis 53
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
Implication of the Study 67
Limitations of the Study 68
Suggestions for further Studies 69
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Social-Economic Background of
Table 2: Knowledge of Health Science 57
Table 3: Pupils’ knowledge of communicable
4: Pupils’ knowledge of causes of
5: Knowledge of pupils about symptoms
communicable diseases 59
Table 6: Knowledge of control of communicable
7: Ranking of respondents in
what they know about communicable
1: Bar Chart showing various levels of
knowledge towards communicable
Background to the study
The fundamental care that a child
requires is the same in all countries of the world. Every child requires to be
born all nurtured in a clean and healthy environment as the child subsequently feeds
and carries out other activities. The home should provide warmth, love and
protection from injury, with every opportunity to learn and grow in a clean and
healthy environment. According to Mcseer (2000), the rights of every child should
be respected according to the widely accepted convention including the rights
to protection from injury and prevention and treatment of illnesses.
less developed countries like Nigeria, the basic care is important, in that it
may well be the only health care the child will ever receive in a country with
scarce resources. Under these circumstances the rearing skills of the mother
are of primary importance. Her ability to be the principal primary health-care
provider requires knowledge of what is good health and able to learn and
provide appropriate health care for the child. Obviously a mother’s health and
education are of vital importance to a child’s well-being in any country of the
world, but under conditions of poverty, they may mean the difference between
life and death for the child.
is a disturbing fact that the death of a child is not regarded as being of the
same importance as the death of an adult. In a way, this is strange because the
child’s life holds such importance, perhaps he or she may become a genius
Doctor, or even a head of state. At least he has years of productivity before him.
Children are said to be a nation’s greatest asset, though the potential is
still in the future. At the moment, the child is just another mouth to feed, a
nuisance to be worried over.
so all down the ages, while often paying lip-service to the needs of children,
society has infact relegated them to the lowest place.
human being at sometime in life suffers illness caused by infection. Infections
which can be passed from person to person are referred to as communicable
diseases. Children in primary school in underdeveloped countries are exposed to
unhygienic environment and as such are highly exposed to infectious diseases.
This makes it worthwhile to study communicable diseases. Whenever any part of
the body suffers, every other part of the body will be affected. When it
happens this way, the pupils concerned will be hindered from attending school
and if they do, they might not be able to concentrate in their studies. Hence
the statement is true that it is a sound body that harbours a sound mind.
Statement of the Problem
diseases among the primary school children are worthy of knowledge considering
the environmental hazards that they are exposed to both in their various homes
and schools. Ill health is one major barrier that hinders the pupils from
attending schools regularly or having full concentration on their studies.
Whenever any part of the body suffers, the whole system of the body will be
affected including the intellect. Therefore in the case of the primary school
pupils the teaching-learning process will breakdown whenever a child is unsound
in health. It is for this reason that all concerned parties must put hands on
deck to ensure that as much as possible, school children are in sound health
always and in particular free from communicable diseases.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to
survey the primary school pupils’ knowledge of communicable diseases in Kwara
State. According to Anne (1980), most primary school pupils have environmental
problems. These problems include, poor water supply, poor method of sewage
disposal, inadequate health services and poor personal hygiene of the pupils
both at home and in the school. The children play together, eat and drink
together with the same utensils. They also breathe the same air in crowded and
poorly ventilated classroom, and sleep in the same room in most cases. All
these can be attributed as the basis for communicable diseases.
researcher therefore intends to find out whether the children have knowledge
about communicable diseases as well as the symptoms of some common ones.
is the place of good health in education?
health education be made compulsory in the primary school?
are communicable diseases?
role should the Government play in the treatment and control of communicable
view of the research problems the researcher sets out to provide answers to
these research questions.
primary school pupils have understanding of communicable diseases?
primary school pupils have the knowledge of the causes of communicable
primary school pupils have knowledge of the symptoms of communicable diseases?
primary school pupils have the knowledge of the types of communicable diseases?
primary school pupils have the knowledge of the prevention and control measures
of communicable diseases?
Significance of the Study
The findings from this study will
provide useful information to the pupils, teachers and parents on communicable
diseases. This research study will also educate the pupils, teachers and
parents on the need to keep an environment that promotes healthy living. A
sound knowledge of environmental sanitation as well as personal health will
reduce the occurrence and incidence of infectious diseases.
these studies pupils will be enlightened on the causes, symptoms, treatment and
control of communicable diseases.
research will assist the authority and management of the schools to design
appropriate strategies that will promote pupils’ knowledge of communicable
diseases and health education in general.
shall also be advised to pay more attention to the health of the pupils by
supplying adequate facilities and health personnel.
Delimitation of the Study
The study was delimited to Ilorin
municipal, and some surrounding villages due to financial reasons. For the same
reasons too, it was not possible to cover the whole primary schools in Ilorin.
the number of schools chosen as sample was sufficiently representative to be
able to draw reasonable conclusions.
Definition of Terms
The terms below are given operational
definitions as follows:
Health: The condition of being sound in body,
mind and spirit, especially freedom from diseases.
Disease: An abnormal bodily condition of a
living animal or plant that interferes with functioning and can usually be
recognized by signs and symptoms. Diseases can also be defined as disorder of
the body when the body is not at ease.
Communicable disease: Is an illness to a specific infection
agent or its toxic products from reservoir to susceptible host either directly
as from an infected person or animal of indirectly through the agency of an
intermediate plant or animal.
Host: A vector or an inanimate environment.
Contact: A situation in which a person is
exposed to a contagious disease.
Hygiene: A science of the establishment and
maintenance of health. It is the conditions and practices conducive to
Survey: Examining the condition of certain
things or a general look at or examination of something.
Infection: The state produced by the
establishment of an infective agent in or on a suitable host. It is the
successful invation of the body of pathogen, micro organism under condition
which permits them to multiply and harm the body.
Health service: Professional assistance or measure
given by health personnel to improve the health of the populace.
Droplet infection: A term to portray the diseases germs
which are spread by some of the liquid living the air passage which is blown
out as a fine spray of tiny drops of mucous and saliva which hang in the air
and often contacted by healthy persons when they breathe in the infected
Primary School: In many, countries including Nigeria,
Great Britain and France Cecole Priamire. It denotes only the first years of
elementary education specifically kindergarten and other elementary grades.