attempted to examine whether there is a relationship between school location
and career aspirations of students. Some related and relevant literature were
reviewed under sub headings such as the concept of career and career choice,
theories of career choice, peer influence on career choice among others. The
descriptive research survey design was used to assess the opinions of the
randomly selected respondents with the aid of a questionnaire and the sampling
technique. A total of 120 (one hundred and twenty) respondents were selected as
samples for the study. Five null hypotheses were formulated and tested using
the frequency percentages, ranking and the Pearson Product Moment Correlation
Statistical tool at 0.05 level of significance. Results showed among others
that there was no significant relationship between school location and
vocational interests of students. It was also revealed that a significant relationship
exist between gender and vocational interest.
Title page i
Table of contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 4
Purpose of the Study 5
Research Questions 6
Research Hypotheses 7
Significance of the Study 7
Scope of the Study 9
1.8 Definition of Key Terms 9
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 11
2.1 The Concept of Career and Career Choice 12
Theories of Career Choice 14
Peer Group Influence on Career Choice 23
Influence of Parents Social Economic
Status on Career Choice 25
Influence of Sex on Career Choice 27
Influence of Motivation on Career
Need for Career Information 31
Expectations in Career Aspirations 35
Summary of Review 42
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 44
3.0 Introduction 44
Research design 45
Population of the study 45
Sample and sampling technique 45
Research instrument 45
Procedure for data collection 46
Procedure for data analysis 46
FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATIONS AND
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS 47
Testing of Hypotheses 47
Summary of Findings 52
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES 53
Discussion of Findings 53
Suggestions for Further Studies 60
Background to the
It is quite
interesting to hear young people talk about career aspirations and reasons for
their choices. Many of them especially, the final year students in the various
secondary schools face the problem of choosing a career they will pursue in
future (Munoye, 2000). Considering their age, their choices are influenced by
many factors such as peer group, parents socio-economic status, sex of the
student, interest and motivational level, availability of career information,
subject studied at school and so on. According to Mailumo (2001) the problem
with career aspirations and choice is further compounded because of the lack of
adequate career education, simply put as work-related education, which he says
is a strong determinant of career choice. He believes that the individual needs
to become aware and well informed of all about the world of work as one of
those aspects of human endeavour.
Secondly, there is an acute shortage,
if not a complete absence of trained guidance counsellors in most Nigerian
schools, especially in public and state schools. This need is well articulated
in the revised National Policy on Education (NPE, 2004). The policy states that
“in view of the apparent ignorance of many young people about career prospects,
and in view of personality maladjustment amongst school children, career
officers and counsellors ought to be appointed in post-primary institutions”.
A one time Minister of Education in
Nigeria, Prof. Jubril Aminu, described guidance and counselling as
indispensable to the 6-3-3-4 system of education, that through its application,
students could be correcting or guided to go into areas that are best suited to
their abilities, aptitudes, interests and capabilities (Daily Times, March, 20,
But in spite of all these policy
statements and other pronouncements, most post-primary schools in the country
have not had the opportunity to have guidance counsellors. This is rather
unfortunate because with the multiplicity of career alternatives based on
individual differences, abilities and aptitudes, education and length of
training, sex, interests among others, career choice is becoming increasingly
difficult (Ayo, 1990). The development in science and technology has led to new
careers of which most people are not aware of (Omoegun and Buraimo, 2001). To
Olayinka (1986), Career services in schools should be an integral part of our
educational system especially, if we want education to be functional,
child-centered and job-oriented.
Olayinka (1973) investigated the
difference in vocational aspirations of boys and girls in Lagos. This study
revealed that majority of the youths choose jobs without relating them to their
interest and capabilities to cope with the nature of jobs. This, according to
him was due to the absence of adequate guidance by school counsellors. In the
same vein, he asserted that the youths especially, those living in the urban
areas were enticed to choose jobs simply because such jobs had a high payment
or remuneration or for prestigious reasons. The result of this study also showed
that girls were unrealistic in their choices of some careers when their
performance was observed in certain subject areas.
According to Anyanwu (1994), when one
compares the job aspirations of children from urban and rural areas, that of
the children from urban areas are higher. According to him, children from high
socio-economic status who also live in the metropolis, tend to aspire to be
doctors, lawyers, engineers, pharmacists, accountants, pilots etc; while
children who live in the rural areas who are not exposed to the urban life tend
to have lower aspirations. The children in urban schools, because of their
exposure to urban life, will always want to meet up with the expectations of
their parents and the society.
As Adeleke (1990) puts it, majority of
the rural children tend to be school drop-outs. Many of them stop school often
to join one trade or the other. They normally become apprentices to learn one
vocation or the other instead of continuing their education for higher and
better choice of jobs at the end of their education in the higher institutions.
Statement of the
No doubt, when
adolescents choose careers without adequate direction and information on the
type and nature of career they choose, it leads them to unrealised career aspiration
and fulfillment in life. Also, when one is in a career one is not cut out
naturally for, one is bound to become unhappy and in many instances, people
have been frustrated all through their lives due to the fact that they made
wrong choices in their occupations.
The problems of
rural and urban areas and youths’ choices of occupations cannot be
overemphasized. For example, children in the urban areas usually select careers
based on the information and discretion they have either by their parents or from
the media which abound in the cities than the rural areas.
The youths who
dwell in the rural areas often find it difficult to make a good choice of jobs
that will see them through in life. Rather, due to lack of correct information
and direction on job choice, youths in the rural areas are found to make wrong
career choices. Most of them end up to choose wine tapping, carpentry, iron
benders, plumbers, bicycle repairers, mechanics etc.
This study examines
career aspirations of students in the urban and rural schools in Lagos State.
Purpose of the
The purpose of this
study is to examine and compare career aspirations of students in urban and
rural schools in Lagos State.
The specific objectives of this study
i. To find out whether peer group influences adolescents’
career aspirations in both urban and rural environments.
To find out whether the socio-economic status of parents
influences their children’s career.
To find out whether the sex of the child has any role to
play in the career choice of youths.
To find out whether motivational level of the child has
significant influence on his/her choice of career.
To find out whether information on career affects children’s
involvement in one career or the other.
To find out whether interest of the child influences his or
her career aspirations in life.
research questions were raised in this study:
To what extent will the career aspirations of students in
urban schools differ from that of rural schools?
Will there be any relationship between peer group and the
career choice of students?
Will there be a significant relationship between parents’
socio-economic status and children’s career aspirations?
Is there a relationship between the sex of the child and his
or her choice of career
To what extent will interest affect the career choice of
To what extent will there be any relationship between the
motivational level of the students and their choice of career?
hypotheses were formulated for testing in this study:
There will be no significant influence of interest on the
vocational aspirations of students in schools.
There will be no significant gender relationship in the
vocational interest of students in schools.
There will be no significant relationship between parents’
occupation and the vocational interest of students in school.
There will be no significant relationship between school
location and vocational interests of students in school.
There will be no significant vocational interest by females
students in schools.
Significance of the
This study will be
of great benefit to students because they would gain an insight on career
choice and aspirations. The study will help them to understand the importance
of choosing a career or selecting subjects that can lead them to certain jobs
in life. With the findings and recommendations of the study, students will
appreciate the essence of choosing the right jobs. Also, students in the rural
areas will be assisted by the recommendations, which will help them and
encourage them to embrace the attributes of choosing jobs that will be of great
importance to them in future.
The result of this
study and its recommendations will help guidance counsellors appreciate the
more, the fact that students at the secondary school level need to be helped
through their wealth of experience in order to choose better careers in life.
Through this study
both the Federal and State government will appreciate the fact that the child
in school needs to be well guided in order to make a choice of career that will
benefit him in future. The study will help governments to put in place some
systems that will help the child to be able to make a choice of career. It will
also enable government to realise the importance of the school counsellor to
the career aspirations of the child.
Parents will no
doubt appreciate this study because it will enable them to understand the job
aspirations of their children. With the recommendations parents will be
encouraged to be conversant with the future of their children and the danger in
imposing or choosing careers for them.
Scope of the Study
The study is a
comparative study of career aspirations of students in urban and rural areas of
be secondary school children (SS 2 students) from randomly selected secondary
schools in Lagos Mainland representing urban schools and Ikorodu representing
The variables to be
considered will include age, socio-economic status of parents of students,
interest, motivational level, peer-group influence and availability of career
Definition of Key
The terms used in
this study will be operationally defined as follows:
Career: This is defined by
Super and Super (1989) as a sequence of occupations, jobs and positions
occupied during a persons working life. Career will be used interchangeably to
mean one and the same with vocation, occupation, duty, job, profession. These
are what we do to earn a living, although there are subtle differences. Certain
expectations are expected of each career. Doctors are expected to be clean
intellectual and sympathetic lawyers are expected to be able to argue
intelligently. They are to be bold cunning and have broad world-view. Teachers
ought to be disciplined and neat.
Aspiration: Arnolds (1990),
aspiration is a strong desire to do something great or important. This is the
desire youths or even adults have in getting involved in a certain profession,
job or career.
Expectation: According to
Advanced Learners Dictionary (1980) expectation is the conditions of expecting
something. It is an hope that one has for the future.
Motivation: Motivation is the
reason to do or for doing something. According to Abraham Maslow (1943)
motivation is a drive to act on the direction of a particular outcome.
Aspiration is a function of both needs and the probability that those needs
will be met.
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