This research focused on Trends in the use of Human
Model in the Nigeria Advertising Industry.
This study consists five chapters, the first chapter cover and introduction of study. The research problem, objectives of the
study, formulation of hypotheses, the significance, the limitations
and the scope of the study was also
tested in this chapter.
two described the theoretical framework and related literature review. In chapter three, Research methodology was
covered while chapter four dealt with
Analysis and presentation of Data Besides Hypothesis Testing. The summary, conclusion and
Recommendations for further study were
made in chapter five.
research is carried out through the method of survey research. The empirical aspect of the work is carried
out using information obtained from both sample of consumers age groups and five advertising agencies in
Enugu and Lagos they use model in advertising products or services.
core of this study is to analyse the effectiveness of using models in
advertising and its ethical implications.
on these, three hypotheses were formulated.
1. H: Modeling is a very effective
advertising strategy in Nigeria
NH: Modeling is not an effective advertising
strategy in Nigeria.
2. H: Models used in advertising is seen as
ethical by Nigerians.
NH: Models used in advertising is seen as
unethical by Nigerians.
3. H: Models
influence prospective buyers on the purchase of products.
and bill-boards are the best among the models.
is the best vehicle to use models in
Based on the above
findings, some recommendations made are
1. Advertising agencies should incorporate
modeling service on their organization so that such models used could be
specifically, and efficiently trained for the specific product to suit the
2. Greater emphasis should be made on the use
of local models in advertising product especially cigarette.
3. Since modeling has been found to be
effective as advertising strategy, efforts should be made to increase the rate
paid to models in order to encourage people to go into professional modeling schools to train the young ones is recommended.
has been found that use of models in cigarette advert significantly affect
consumers below twenty years, therefore, efforts should be made to restrict
cigarette advert to such programmes which will not attract the ago groups below twenty, since they are more
influenced by the models used in cigarette advertisement.
TABLE OF CONTENT
OF THE STUDY
FORMULATION OF THE HYPOTHESES
OF THE STUDY
OF THE STUDY
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
OF ADVERTISING IN NIGERIA
HISTORY OF ADVERTISING
AGENCIES IN NIGERIA
MODELING AND MODELING AGENCY IN NIGERIA
AS AID TO EFFECTIVE ADVERTISING
AND MARKETING PSYCHOLOGY
IN ELECTRONIC MEDIA
DETERMINATION OF SAMPLE SIZED
ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND
INTERPRETATION OF DATA
AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
LIST OF TABLES
Rates approved for Artistes /models by APN member Agencies
Hierarchy of effect model.
Consumer questionnaire distribution
Management Questionnaire Distribution
Age classification of consumer Respondents.
Media commonly carrying models cigarette Advertisements
Influence of model to increase buying Habit
Agencies Questionnaire Distribution
The Effectiveness of model in Advertising
Factors Responsible for the Effectiveness
The media selection for model used in Advertising
Questionnaire survey table.
Age groups of consumers that considered
Advertising as Ethical.
Advertising is any paid form of non-personal
presentation and promotion of persons, institutions, ideas, goods or services,
by an identified sponsor using appropriate medium or media of
communication. According to the Cable
news network (CNN), advertising gives us the right to choose, in the market
place. It induces immediate sales and
builds sustainable image for a product.
also informs buyers about products that
ate new in the market as well as remind them about old ones almost forgotten
due to lack of publicity on them. It
tells about names of such new products and where to get
them. Using well know models to
advertise products or services creates arousal of interest if viewers identify
such products or services with the models.
practitioners/advertisers hold the view that when celebrity models are used for promotion of
goods or services, the loyalty of the garget audience is won. The use of models in advertising stem, from
the marketing concept and also emanates from the fact that advertisers and advertising agencies realized
the power influence and importance of associating notable personalities or even
good looking people with product identity in order to achieve the following
attract the attention of prospective buyers.
the sales of the products by associating it with such models.
get buyers to be favourably disposed to the products.
propagate the brand
improve on the brand image
add value to advertising and communications
wide use of model in advertising has remind a remarkable instrument of
increasing business activities because the appeals drawn will be very effective
in advertising and will attract much concern where attitude change is
involved. As a result, some developments
have been with eased in the advertising industry within the least twenty years
in the area of supportive services as radio and television production, research
and out door services. These are
activities and ventures where modeling services are required.
day, advertising industry use models in several ways either on television or
advertisement on the pages and covers of various magazines, newspapers,
journals calendars, bill-boards, and posters.
(1968) asserts that there are many different ways in which models are used in advertising and further stated how complex
the world of advertising can be if one stops to think about models used in
advertising. The models could be
trained, untrained, celebrities, seductive and non-deductive. But of all the models used. Celebrity models
seem to be the most effective in advertising.
White Hooper (1946) sees celebrity
endorsements as finding either an authority star personality, or entertainer,
who will associate himself/herself with your product, in some positive fashion, that will enhance its popularity with the television audience”. This study which was conceived out of a sense
of strong interest in models used in advertising, coupled with the fact that
too little was known about models used in advertisements by the modeling
agencies or advertising agencies is
intended to find out the influence of these models in advertisements. Most of the advertising firms operate through modeling agencies and majority of the
models are represented by these agencies with their contracts being established
by their representatives. But no rule
exists that model must be represented by an agent, as some companies have been
incorporated to provide and train models
purpose of a modeling agency is to avail
advertisers/advertising agencies the services of trained and experienced models
required for advertising of goods or services, since modeling seems to play
important roles in the advertising
industry, especially in accelerating appeal for goods and services as well as
improving sales of influence models now have no the audience in promoting of
goods and services .
In Nigeria today, use of models in
advertising has become one of the sophiscated marketing strategies employed in
advertising operations. Watching the
televisions, one sees and listen to an
innumerable number of advertisements of products and services like peps, cola,
Elephant blue detergent, lux toilet soap, star lager beer, jik bleach etc. Each
of these products were advertised by
models, mostly celebrities, it is important to remember that modeling has now
reached a highly competitive stage, and huge efforts and finance are being
invested yearly by the industry. Whether
these efforts are justifiable or not depends on the effectiveness and the
ethical implication of modeling.
problem, however, is that in Nigeria
there s a poverty of studies on
the effectiveness and ethical dimensions of modeling in advertising. This study is geared towards helping to solve this problem in the
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of this study are as
To provide an indepth understanding of meaning of models and
modeling in advertising
To examine the ways models are being used
To find out people that are required to be models
To find out whether models have any influence on prospective buyers
To find out if the use of models in adverting is very effective
To find out if the use of models is considered ethical or unethical.
are tentative supposition put forward to determine facts and give solution to
problems. Based on the problem
definition and the objectives of the study previously stated, the following
hypotheses are to be tested or investigated to find out whether models help in
the advertising industry or not.
1. H Modeling is a very
effective advertising strategy in Nigeria.
2. HO: Modeling is not an
effective advertising strategy in Nigeria.
3. H2 Use of models in advertising is seen as
ethical by Nigerians.
HO Use of models in advertising is seen as unethical by Nigerians.
H3 Models influence prospective buyers on the purchase
Ho models do not influence prospective buyer on the
purchase or products.
The research question of this study is as follow
1. Do human models have effects on the advertising industry?
2. Do Human model tend to prompt the
Advertising industry in Nigeria?
3. Which class of the Human models is most
4. Do Human models Advertising have negative or positive effect
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study depends largely on the
set of objectives of the research.
Based on this, it will help to bring
out the influence and effect of models on the prospective buyers and their
influence could be anything ranging from negative to positive or neutral. It
will also aid in deciding whether model enhance the creditability of the
advertisement, and the product or service advertised or worse still, whether it
detracts from the creditability of the advert.
There is need
for modeling services (support personnel) in the promotion of goods or
services. Given that some of the
advertising problems that plague the industry are being models and
modeling agencies used, it is hope that
the study will no doubt help the advertiser and advertising agency to adopt improved modeling services as a
strategy which would enhance the overall advertising performance in the industry.
LIMITAIONS OF THE STUDY
research effort of this nature is usually thought with some problems and
limitations the framework of this study would have been based on models used in
various advertising media but its scope will be limited to advertisement on
television, radio, magazines, bill boards and poster, in Enugu and Lagos
Advertising research involves cost
in terms of survey, collection of data, preparation of
questionnaire and production of concluded research work. meanwhile, some respondents never completed the questionnaires
administered on them as they continued
to shift attention from them. And even the one completed were not retuned.
of relevant literature on the models and modeling agencies used in advertising
became a problem because there was lack
of accurate data on th models used in advertising. Even when approached they refused giving
details on how they use models in advertising for fear of the competitors.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
study will cover selected Advertising agencies in Enugu and Lagos, especially Lagos because Lagos is a
commercial center in Nigeria that has a large population. It will have a good representations of the consumers that will be surveyed to
find out how effective and how ethical modeling is in Nigerians, Advertising
ADVERTISING: Is any past form of non presentation and
promotion of ideas, goods and services by an identified sponsor. Advertising
can be run both in the print or electronic media using the basic visual audio
communication materials eg. In the
newspaper using photographs, etc. or
radio/TV using voicing or sound effect.
AGENCY: Is an organization that creates communication
messages and they gets them exposed via the various media, to the audience with
the objective of receiving its commission.
MODEL: A person called upon or employed to be photographed, or to display or demonstrate certain products
or services to possible buyers in order to compel action.
An acclaimed model must operate
within the known standards, rules, regulations, or procedures of the
MODELING: It is an art of making models working
as a model, take up a career in modeling
EFFECTIVE: Making a strong impression or
influence on the intended result.
ETHICAL: It describes ethic which is a
system of moral principles or rule that govern or influence a person’s
CELEBRITY: They are star or role used in adverting
products or services, it could be television
stars, actors actresses, sport figures or entertainers whose appearance
in the advertisement of such goods or services sustains the interest of his /her audience on the goods
or services so advertised.
1. Advertising: Making
generally or publicly known persuade publicly in order to encourage people to buy or use it.
2. Agency: The means fore or substance that produces an effect or
3. Model: A person use
to display or demonstrate certain produces or services to possible buyers in order to compel action.
the act of making a model.
5. Effective: Producing the result that was
wasted or intended.
6. Ethical : Connected with principles of what is right
7. Celebrity: A famous
person specially some one in the entertainment
1. What are the effects of
human model in the Advertising industry in Nigeria?
2. Is modeling an effective advertising strategy in Nigeria?
3. How does Human model effect the consumer a perception of the particular product?
4. Does Nigerian accept modeling advertising as a profession?
5. Can model advertising in Nigeria be compare to what is
obtained in the advertising industries in the foreign countries?