research work intends to bring to limelight, the positive and negative factors
that affect or limit the role of women while embarking on ventures in Umuagwu,
Ejemekwuru of Oguta local government area in Imo State
The motivation behind the choice of this topic is the recognition of the fact
that the role of women towards community development has become a catalyst in
the fast pace of development witnessed in so many nations of the world. A
sample size of 120 respondents was drawn from the four villages that make up
Umuagwu, Ejemekwuru. All of these respondents responded to the study. However,
the major research instrument employed in this research study was the interview
method which was designed to cover all aspects of the study. The result of this
study brings to the fore, the fact that women in Umuagwu, Ejemekwuru play a
very colossal role in the community development task of Umuagwu, Ejemekwuru. It
also reviewed that they encounter some problems while trying to achieve these
roles. Based on the foregoing, the researcher therefore recommended that the
government at various levels, financial institutions and other relevant
agencies should learn to give a maximum support to the community development
projects of women in Umuagwu, Ejemekwuru.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Certification - - - - - - - - -i
Dedications - - - - - - - - ii
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - iii
Abstract - - - - - - - - - v
Table of contents - - - - - - -
List of tables
of the study - - - - 1-4
of the problem - - - - - 5-6
of the study - - - - - 6-7
of the study - - - - - 7-8
question - - - - - - 9
hypothesis - - - - - - 9-11
of the study - - - - - - 11
of the study - - - - - 11-12
of terms - - - - - -
Reference - - - - - - - -15-16
CHAPTER TWO: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND
framework - - - - 17-19
review - - - - - 19
nature of community development - -19-22
2.2.2 Objectives of community development - -22-25
2.2.3 Major approaches to community development 25-26
in community development - - 26-30
Reference - - - - - - - 31
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH
design - - - - - 32
of study - - - - - - 32-33
Study population - - - - - 33-34
Sample size determination - - - - 34
techniques - - - - - 35
3.6 Method of data
collection. - - - - 35-36
of data analysis - - - - 36
collection process - - - - 36
Reference - - - - - - - - 37
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction - - - - - - 38
and analysis of data - - - 38
of personal data of respondents -38-42
of research questions - - 43-48
of hypothesis - - - - 48-54
and conclusion. - - - - 54
Reference - - - - - - - - 55
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
of findings - - - - - 56-58
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - 59
5.3 Recommendation - - - - - 59-61
References - - - - - - - - 62
Bibliography - - - - - - -
Appendix - - - - - - - 68
Questionnaire - - - - - - 69-72
LIST OF TABLE
of the respondents
distribution of respondents
status of respondents
status of respondents
qualification of respondents
on membership of any organization
on the number of women organization
of women organization in Umuagwu community
on whether their objectives are being fulfilled
on developmental programmes undertaken by the groups
on the factors hindering community
on the reasons why people fail to recognize the role of women in Umuagwu
on the developmental programmes women have carried out in Umuagwu community
responses on what should be done to eradicate the obstacle that hinders the
role of women in Umuagwu community.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
the years, government has been making several attempts to meet the inelastic
needs of communities with their limited resources, but this has not been
efficacious. Hence, community development according to Eze. C (1999: 126) is
one of the alternative vehicles for the positive transformation of societies.
Mere (1982:304) also emphasized that community development is an instrument of
social betterment and upliftment of communities. Also, the United Nations in 1956 gave a
definition of community development which is now accepted world wide. According
to them, it is a “process by which the efforts of the people are united with
those of governmental authorities to improve the economic, social and cultural
conditions of communities, to integrate these communities into the life of the
nation and enable them to contribute fully to the national progress” (Khindula,
these view points, there is need for assistance from other bodies to supplement
the effort of the government to encourage better life pattern for members of
the society. It is based on this that women organize themselves in groups for
help activities in towns and village. Women are involved in all the stages of
community development process beginning from the identification of felt needs,
down to execution and evaluation of projects. They carry out enlightenment
programs for government policies in tracking their members, the value of family
child care and home economics. Most importantly, they assist extension workers
to penetrate into the women folk of the community.
group efforts, women have tried to introduce the understanding of changes
taking place in the society at large and how to cope with the challenges
brought about by such changes. They promote religious belief, the care of
motherless and abandoned children, the care of destitute, promotion of modern
home management, encouragement of education at nursery and primary school
level, day care centers, etc. these women could be co-operative, self help
groups, welfare groups, church groups, collective and exchange work groups
which are geared towards the economic, Social and political development.
wisdom and determinant quality deposited in the women of Umuagwu community has
gone a long way in development project. Just like any other community. Women
group in Umuagwu has contributed immensely towards the development of their
community. These women embark upon many physical projects like the building of
shops and walling of the market, building of maternity, renting of canopies,
etc. Infact, the important role they play in the social and economic
development of Umuagwu and the society at large, cannot be over emphasized.
mothers of the home, they play critical roles in education and socialization of
the children in teaching new trends of home management, maintenance of the
body, environmental cleanliness and as well contributing to the physical
development of the society. In any form their services are required; they are
always willing to do so. No limit should be placed on what they can
collectively constitute to community development because women constitute a
powerful social class. However, the attempt by women to come together and work
in such groupings has been hindered by several factors. Often times, the role of
women in community development in Nigeria is perceived as secondary
and most times, very inferior to that of men.
our society, the factors militating against the role of women in community
development, has caused a lot of economic, social and political set backs. At
times, the principal obstacle to the role of women in community development in Nigeria are not
intentional, they are as a result of unexamined assumptions about women’s
cares, interest, unquestioned over a time.
this study aims at investigating factors that delays and inhibits the role of
women in community development in Umuagwu in order to provide solutions to the
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Limited role of women in community development has created a very big problem
in our society. These problems have attracted the attention of various
governments, writers and every one concerned in enhancing development in Nigeria.
decades ago have witnessed hundreds of seminars, conferences and workshops
tailored towards the promotion of the role of women in community development in
The common practice today has been to mobilize scholars and professionals to
present papers that identify the purposes and as well as proffer solutions to
the innumerable problems hindering the role of women at all levels without
actually investigating those factors.
it has recently been recognized that the real gains from such efforts have not
been achieved. This is why Olowole (1998) wrote that why most poverty
alleviation projects and programs have failed is that the operators are hardly
conversant with the thinking and aspirations of Nigerian women. Johnson (1995)
also emphasized that no nation can develop by neglecting her women. Women are Nigeria’s
greatest asset for stability, economic prosperity, development and unity. Also
Okere (2008) recognized that high participation of women in national decision
making is one of the indices of development. Thus, the factors hindering the
role of women in community development in Nigeria will be investigated and
solution will be proposed.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
core objective of this research work is to examine the role of women in
community development in Nigeria
with a particular attention on Umuagwu in Ejemekwuru.
other specific objectives of this study include:
increase awareness on the important roles women play in community development
identify some factors hindering the roles of women in community development in
recommend solutions to the problems of women in community development programs
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
is no research work done solely for its own sake but to also contribute to
already existing body of knowledge. This work will contribute to women study
and their roles in community development in Nigeria. It will also add to
already existing knowledge on the subject matter. The study will also provide insight
for other researchers who may wish to carry out further studies on the
activities of women.
findings of this study will help the public and government to change both their
attitude and perception against women which hinders development in Nigeria, such
things like believing that politics is for men would be history. From the
study, government and non-governmental organization (NGO) would learn to give
their support to the women in their fight for their rights and freedom.
will benefit a lot from the findings of this study in the following ways. The
study will point out the major areas women suffer neglect; like economically,
socially politically, health wise, etc. the research findings will teach, the
women organizations to continue in their struggle to over come discriminations
against women in terms of employment and job promotion and other aspects of
fundamental human rights.
the study will make the society to stop thinking that a part is better than the
whole and equally, to stop neglecting their human resources (women) and
accordingly, try to include woman in every activity. The study will also bring
to focus, the real issues involved in the role of women in community
development in Nigeria.
This will make the society to work towards eradicating the obstacles that have
stood in the ways of women’s role in Nigeria and Umuagwu in particular.
The society will benefit a lot from
the findings because the important roles of woman towards community development
would be made very obvious.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
research work is to be carried out based on the following research question.
are the factors hindering the roles of women in community development in
are the reasons why people fail to recognize the role of women in community
development in Umuagwu?
are the important roles played by women in community development in Umuagwu?
are the solutions to the problems of women in community development in Umuagwu
in Ejemekwuru community?
These and some other issues are the
motivation for this research work.
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
research work comprises the null hypothesis (Ho) and the alternative hypothesis
(Hi). The Hi would stand rejected whenever the Hi is proved to be true. The
hypotheses are as follows:
first Ho states that there are no factors hindering the role of women in
community development in Nigeria.
first Hi contrarily states that there are many factors hindering the role of
women in community development in Nigeria.
second Ho states that many fetish and spurious factors militate against women’s
role in community development in Umuagwu.
second Hi states that, there are no fetish and spurious factors militating
against women’s role in community development in Umuagwu.
third Ho states that women involve themselves in development ventures severally
in Umuagwu community.
third Hi on the other hand states that women in Umuagwu do not engage
themselves in development ventures.
fourth Ho which is the last hypothesis states that, orientation of the minds of
the people will help in solving the problems of Umuagwu women.
the contrary, the fourth Hi states that orientation of the minds of the people
will not be help in solving the problem facing Umuagwu women.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
study will primarily focus on the relationship between women participation in
development activities and development itself.
will cover areas like the factors militating against the efficacy of the role
of women in community development and possible solutions as well, but will not
pay much attention to the society at large as it affects women and development
but will concentrate on Umuagwu women in Ejemekwuru.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
collection owing to the fact that this research work adopted the interview
method as the instrument of data collection, was one of the limitations of the
study.Naturally, the interview method of data collection has always encountered
problems due to the fact that some people may be suspicious of interview and
their motives, thus distortion of information (either as a result of honest
misunderstanding or as a result of purposeful misinterpretation) is a real
the nonchalance of some women towards development issues was also a problem in
the course of carrying out this research.
was also a limitation to the study as there were several other issues to attend
lack of fund and sponsorship which nearly discouraged the researcher was a
limitation to a great extent.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
the course of carry out this research, the following concepts are defined as
were applied within the context of this research work.
There is no precise definition of the concept of “community” as many writers
and authors have given various definitions to the word. Chaturvedi (2006:60) as
contained in Onyenwigwe (2011:293) states that a community is “the total
organization of social life within a limited area”.
Community Development: Warren
(1971:324) defined community development as a deliberate and sustained attempt
to strengthen the horizontal pattern of a community.
The term is complex, ambiguous and multi-faceted. It has no acceptable
definition as each definer perceives it from his/her own theology. Business
dictionary defines it as “the process of economic and social transformation
that is based on complex cultural and environmental factor and their
Women Organization: Refers to the act of arranging female adult of human being into groups
with different objectives and names.
to the function or importance of women.
refers to the female adult of human beings.
Here, it means idea, character that has become fixed or standardized and the
idea may be false.
Lasswell (1936) considers politics as involving “who gests what, when and how?
refers to a business, project or activity, especially one that involves taking
Felt Need: In
this study, it means the most pressing need of people that is identified by
them and attempted doing something about it.
Producing the result that was wanted or intended.
refers to fact, circumstances etc, that helps to produce a result.
refers to all the people living in a particular area, city or country.
Here, it means training or information that is given before starting a project
or new job.
Knowledge about and understanding of something, the process of understanding
something or making somebody understand it.
unfair treatment of people, especially women, because of their sex.
fail or refuse to perform a duty.