This project focuses on examining "The Nexus between
Employees' Discipline and Productivity in the Public Sector", a
case study of Nigeria Breweries Plc. The primary agent of productivity
is the organizational workforce. The key requirements for ensuring and
sustaining organizational productivity are mobilizing and developing the
workforce through a well-structured communication, orientation, and well
defined policies in place to direct the
affairs and discipline of the employees in the organisation.
The objectives of the study are: to evaluate how the weak
sanction against identified unethical individuals and indiscipline on the part
of political elites, result to lack of meaningful participation in the policy
making process in the public sector. To determine how employee indiscipline
arising from falsification of records, absence from duty without leave, refusal
to proceed on transfer and the decline on productivity in the Nigeria Breweries.
The methodology used
for the study was questionnaire and
personal interview to collect primary
data from the field, a survey research design was employed so as to simplify
the sourcing of primary data. Also, the researcher made an attempt to test
three hypotheses, and this was made possible with the use of simple mean and
average in order to situate our findings.
The findings of
the study inferred that there is nexus between employee discipline and prod
activity in the public sector; the finding also revealed that that weak
sanction against identified unethical individuals does not result to lack of
meaningful participation in policy making process in the public sector.
It is therefore recommended that, stiffer penalties to be
applied against offenders on some offences, Independence of the Judiciary in
the true sense is necessary, Corrupt officials
should be made to face the consequences of their corrupt acts and Law
Enforcement Agents to be disciplined, prompt action on cases in our courts etc.
It is also recommended that continuous training and development of employees'
generally, positive training and development through sound education, inculcate
decent work ethics through training and development where disciplined acts are
brought into focus.
TABLE OF CONTENT
OF THE STUDY
1.1 Introduction/Back ground of the study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.4 Research Questions
of the Study
1. 7 Scope/Limitation of the Study
Significance of the Study
1.9 Definition of Terms
1.10 Organization or Plan of the Study
2:1 Historical Background of the study
2.2 Conceptual Framework
of an Effective Disciplinary Process
2.4 Causes of
Indiscipline in the Nigeria Pubic Sector
Measures against Serious Misconduct in the Public Sector
Discipline Policy in the Public Sector
relevance of Evaluating Employee Discipline in the Public Sector
Union-Involvement in the Nigeria public Sector
of Exemplary Followership in Organization
2.10 Prospect towards
Promoting Discipline in the Nigeria Public Sector
of Research Questions & Hypotheses
of the Study
and Sampling Procedures
of Data Collection Instruments
for Data Analysis
of the Methodology
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
Characteristics and Classification
and Analysis of Data According to research question
and analysis of data according to test of hypotheses
4.4 Discussion of Findings
FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of findings Conclusion
for Further Study
1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In the public sector, there is the need to serve
constituents, the need to ensure that employees are discipline in order to
blend with the organizational objectives to operate successfully, and the need
to provide services that optimizes limited resources, while creating strategic
direction for future advancements and productivity.
However, the strategies that consistently make the
difference through a concerted employees discipline are those that mobilize and engage individuals to perform at their
best. New tools and techniques or better leadership will not do the job unless
there are followers who get on board with the right mix of disciplined
behaviour. Programs, policies and procedures can create the environment for
But the primary agent of productivity is the
organizational workforce. The key requirements for ensuring and sustaining
organizational productivity are mobilizing and developing the workforce through
a well-structured communication, orientation, and well defined policies in,
place to direct the affairs and discipline of the employees in the
When the organization is viewed as a unified system, it
becomes clear that all organizational elements are crucial for sustained
productivity with the ideal motivation, sanctions in order to instill utmost
employee discipline. However, without the "right" human capital
factors, the right employees, the
organization barely moves, or it lurches
along. Reflect on this by looking at, the organization and its components (i.e.
the leader, the systems, and the employees) in the context of a car and all its
component parts. Could you drive a car (the organization) with just a steering
wheel and the drive train (the leader)? Like cars, organizations need all
components working together for full functionality. Tires, seats, windshield,
wipers, and other supporting components (systems) are important features of a
fully working car. But, the car doesn't run without the engine, the battery,
and gasoline (employee discipline). These components give the car its power.
The present democratic government is poised to wage
"WAR" against corruption and other forms of acts of indiscipline in
the Nigeria Public Sector. Can this nation win this war without a carefully
planned strategy for fighting the war? The answer to this question is a
resounding "NO". Thus, there is the need for planning how to fight
The authors' interest in the study of the nature and
management of unethical conducts or acts of indiscipline was spurred by the
findings in the preliminary analysis of earlier work done by one of the
authors. In the said work by Ogundele (2007) it
was found that acts of indiscipline in various forms were the second most
important problem, confronting and inhibiting the productivity of the
indigenous entrepreneurs/public sector management.
The multi-dimensional problems of indiscipline (immoral
or unethical behaviour) in Nigeria today. Nigeria Public Sector is now deeply
infected by the deadly disease called indiscipline (immoral or unethical
conduct). All Nigeria's institutions including,
political, social and economic institutions" manifest this symptoms of
Several concerned writers had expressed one view or the
other against the general lack of
discipline in the Nigeria Public Sector and its impacts on productivity. Osahon
(2005) examined the multi-dimensional
aspects of indiscipline in the Nigeria public sector,
Oji (1982) described it in the context of the need for discipline
revolution in the Nigeria public sector. Nwankwo (2007), Bolaji (2005) stressed
the needs for, economic and political nationalism, moral leadership and
requirement of education for new leadership in the Nigeria public sector
Nzeribe's (2003) focus
was ethnic and economic origin of Nigeria discipline problems. Ayagi (1990)
blamed the economic and social problems of Nigeria on leadership indiscipline.
Arene (2006) presented the personality models as means of solving the complex
social, economic and political problems of Nigeria; Ekpo-Ufot (2004) found that several acts of
indiscipline were the major factors that inhibited organizational and national
goals attainment. These were confirmed by Oseni (1993) Ogundele (1999) findings.
Oseni (2001) carried out a study of
high level forms of corruption in the Nigeria Breweries Plc which was and still
is a product of the larger society. Ogundele (2000)
found that acts of indiscipline, (unethical behaviour), including
bribery, robbery, fraudulent practices and corruption were the second most
important inhibitors, of the productivity of two groups of public sector in
Therefore, unethical behaviours have negative effects on
productivity of business organization in Nigeria. The same can be said for
other Africans countries and business.
In Nigeria and other black African countries
the situation are serious based on the nation's inability to identify and
thread the appropriate philosophical and developmental paths much less on
ethical values (Aina, 1992). In
contemporary African countries, the fashion is to get rich quick through
fraudulent means rather than by hard work.
1.2 STATEMENT OF
THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
It is no more news that the very essence of establishing
the Public Sector is to provide valuable services to members of the public and
these agents are known as the public servants, these public servants who are supposed
to uphold the laws are found violating the laws. Invariably, the gab or
relationship between employee discipline and productivity in the public sector
is increasingly uneven.
The inability on the part of employee in the public
sector to adhered to stated rules and regulation may be considered as the root
or generalized causes of indiscipline in organizations which is inimical to
effective productivity be it public or private
organizations. Moreso, these problems emanating from indiscipline could be linked
to poor applications of concept of time and large scale bribery, corruption,
falsification of records; failure to keep records, drunkenness, dishonesty;
willful act or omission or general misconduct to the scandal of the public;
absence from duty without leave; disobedience or lawful order, such as refusal
to proceed on transfer or to accept position; negligence; suppression of
records; false claims against Government among others.
It is also adduced that various reasons that resulted to
the causes of unethical behaviour
especially in the Nigeria Breweries Plc in line with productivity is poor
leadership. Among other factors that produced corruption' in the Nigeria Public
Sector: These include, several political factors, patronage and societal
pressures, lack of transparency and proper enforcement of rules on regulation
and government intervention in several spheres of public life and the expansion
of the public sector attributes the cause of corruption in the public sector to
the crisis of leadership, which is exhibited in lack of discipline on the part
of political elites, lack of meaningful participation in the policy making
process, poverty, underdevelopment and bureaucratic inefficiency.
In addition, other attributed causes of indiscipline in
the public sector is value orientation in the society, underdevelopment, lack
of sanctions against identified unethical individuals, ethnicity, and the
psychological mechanisms of individual members that forces them to strive
relentlessly for material success. The various problems discussed above are the
commonly identified discipline challenges in the public sector particularly in
the Nigeria Breweries Plc, which serve as where the research is to be carried
out in the course of the study.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objective of this study is to examine the nexus
between employee discipline and productivity in the public sector, other
specific objectives include:
(i) To investigate the inability on the part of employee in
the public sector to adhere to the conduct of transparency, accountability and
proper enforcement of rules and regulation militate against effective productivity.
(ii) To evaluate how the weak sanction against identified
unethical individuals and indiscipline on the part of political elites, result
to lack of meaningful participation in the policy making process in the public
(iii) To determine how employee indiscipline
arising from falsification of records, absence from duty without leave, refusal
to proceed on transfer and the decline on productivity in the Nigeria
(iv) To provide useful
recommendations that will help to resolve the existing problems of employee
discipline, and the productivity in the Nigeria Breweries Plc.
1.4 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Attempts are made to provide answers to the following
there, any nexus between employee discipline and productivity in the public
the inability on the part of employee in the public sector to adhere to the
conduct of transparency, accountability and proper enforcement of rules and
regulations militate against effective productivity?
does the weak sanction against identified unethical individuals and
indiscipline on the part of political elites result to lack of meaningful
participation in the policy, making process in the public sector?
employee indiscipline arising from falsification of records, absence from duty
without leave, refusal to proceed on transfer responsible for the decline on
productivity in the Nigeria Breweries Plc?
1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
Attempts are made to test the following hypotheses:
is a nexus between employee discipline
and productivity in the public sector.
inability on the part of employee in the public sector to adhere to the conduct
of transparency, accountability and proper enforcement of rules and regulations
-militate against effective productivity.
(iii) Weak sanction against identified unethical
individuals (elite) result to lack of meaningful participation on policy making
process in the public sector.
1.6 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
This study is on the Nexus between Employees' Discipline
and Productivity in the Public Sector, a study of Nigeria Breweries Plc. Also,
as this human capital contributes to the overall corporate objective in a
public sector. A study of this nature
requires a wide area of research study which cannot be easily exploited as a
result of time constraints and eventual cost of carrying out the study,
therefore a comprehensive study of employee discipline and productivity in the
public sector will not be possible hence, the study will be limited to the
Nigeria Breweries Plc.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study will attempt to determine the nexus, between
employees' discipline and productivity in the public sector, using Nigeria
Breweries Plc as a case study. The scope of the study will also cover the
top management staff, middle/supervisory management staff and junior staff in
the Nigeria Breweries Plc Head Quarter located in Ikeja, Lagos. The selection
of Nigeria Breweries Plc was necessitated as a result of time and financial
constraints, which serve as an impediment to the researcher in the course of
carrying out this study.
The significance of this study cannot be over emphases as
toe following people are bound to benefit from the findings of this study.
This study is significant to the researcher in that it has expose the researcher to identify the
increasing need for discipline in the public sector with the view to advising
governments and stakeholders to guide against the negative consequences of indiscipline in the public sector arising
from poor leadership and lack of adherence of stipulated rules governing the
The study increases the knowledge of the researcher on
the implication of the deplorable level of productivity being rendered by the
public enterprises owing to lack of discipline.
The society at large including government, management of
organization, the reading public, other researchers, students, scholars and as
well as upcoming student in this field of study can always benefit from the
various recommendations enlisted which the researcher hope will receive
considerable attention by government and other stakeholders, so as to reduce
the ' alarming rate of public sector indiscipline which may be responsible for
the decline In productivity in the "Nigeria Breweries Plc.
1.9 DEFINTION OF TERMS
Discipline: Disciplined behaviour is a sine qua non for individuals,
small group, organization and national health and survival. Discipline in a broad sense means orderliness the
opposite of confusion.
Productivity: This can be defined as the evaluation of ethical conduct
that invariably facilitate the productivity and attainment of the growth and
development of the organization.
Indiscipline: This is the breaking down or deviations of rules and
regulations governing an organization. In order words indiscipline is also
referred to as inimical to the productivity and growth of a particular
Ethics: Ethics are set rules, values and standard that helps to
promote and direct the activities of group of employees' towards the attainment
set goals (productivity).
Unethical Behavior: Unethical behaviors are regarded as behaviors which
deviate the set standards and values for personal interest (gain), such as
sleeping while on duty, refusal to go on transfer, suppressing of public files,
bribery and corruption among others.
Rules and Regulations: These are clearly defined laws that regulate the
behaviors' of employees in a particular establishment, adherence to these laws
attracts compensation and deviance of the stipulated laws is punishable.
Management: This can be defined as the effective utilization of both
human and material resources to achieve specific objective in an organization.
Employees: This is the most important factor of production that
manages' and directs other means of productions such as land, building,
capital, raw materials among others.
Sanctions/Penalties: This refers to the punitive measures put in place by
organization management to regulate the activities or affairs of employees
towards behaving in a desired manner.
Incentives: These are motivational packages put in place by the
management to intrinsically and extrinsically induce employees to give in their
very best of effort towards executing their assigned task in order to promote
1.10 ORGANIZATION OR PLAN OF THE STUDY
The research work will be divided into five chapters:
Chapter one is the introduction part, which covers the
background of the study, statement of the problem, the objectives of the study,
research hypotheses, and significance of the study, scope and limitations of
the study, definition of terms and organization of the study.
Chapter two contains the literature review and
theoretical framework. In this chapter the views relating to the study of early
writers on the topic are considered imperative.
three contains the research methodology which covers the research method
(instrument) or approach, the population of the study, the sample and
technique; the method of data collection and the method for data analyses and