This study investigated the motivation of
health workers and workplace relationship in a hospital environment in Lagos
State. The purpose of this research was to find out the types of motivation and its influence among health workers in Lagos
State, the influence of workplace relationship among health workers in Lagos
State and the effect of socio-economic characteristics (Sex, age, marital
status, educational qualification and income) on motivation of health workers
in Lagos State. Three questions and hypotheses
were stated for the study, the research design was survey in nature. The study
employed a descriptive survey research design. An instrument titled:
“Motivation of Health Workers and Workplace Relationship” (MHWWR) was used to
collect relevant data for the study. The total numbers of 50 health workers
were selected using simple random
sampling technique. A total
of 50 copies of the questionnaire were distributed to the respondents by the
descriptive statistics of Frequency
Counts and Pearson t-test and Chi-Square was used to test the null hypotheses stated for the
study. The study revealed that team work will
not significantly motivate health workers in private and public sector in Lagos
State, it also revealed that interpersonal relationship will not significantly
motivate health workers in Lagos State, the study further revealed that income
will not significantly motivate health workers in Lagos State. Based on the findings
from the study the following recommendations were made on the basis of the
findings of this study which include the following: Health institution administrators need an understanding of what
motivates health workers in order to use their aptitudes and abilities to
enhance their performance. A basic knowledge of motivational and leadership
theories would assist managers to fashion out policies that meet the needs of
their employees; health institution employers, managers and other leaders in the sector
are encouraged to show greater interest in the welfare of health workers to
make them more valuable and see themselves as contributors to the success of
the organisation through effective leadership; a good working condition and
work environment should be provided within the workplace to make health workers
contribute their best towards the realisation of organisational objectives;
there should be timely and periodic on-the-job training to boost employees’
performance; health institution managers should assess and evaluate health
worker employees at all levels through objective assessment techniques before
and after recruitment and training exercises and health managers should ensure
that the workforce work not only harmoniously but as a team that has a common
stake orinterest. Cooperative attitude key in building and driving cohesion.
Motivation, Health Workers Workplace, Relationship Hospital Environment
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
to the Study 1
of the Problem 5
of the Study 6
Research Questions 7
Research Hypothesis 7
of the Study 8
Delimitation of the Study 9
of Terms 9
TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL
of Motivation 12
of Employee Motivation 15
Need to Motivate Health Workers 16
for Motivating Workers in the Public Health Hospitals 17
of Interpersonal Relationship 21
for Interpersonal Relationship in Workplace 22
affecting Interpersonal Relationship at Workplace 24
Interpersonal Relationship at Workplace 32
and Employee performance and Job Satisfaction 38
of Health Workers and Workplace Relationship 43
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
and Sampling Procedures 47
Collection Techniques 48
of Instrument 49
Data Analysis 50
FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND
DISCUSSIONS OF FINDINGS
of Research Questions 54
of Hypotheses 57
Discussion of Findings 59
FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
to the Study
The poor quality of health services
continues to impede progress toward improving both access to and the use of
essential public health services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).
This is aggravated by the inefficient use of scarce resources, such as
manpower, medical equipment, and supplies. Motivated and well-trained health
workers are essential for high-quality service delivery. Poor job motivation
affects health workers’ performance, service delivery, and health system
performance; improved job motivation is needed to overcome these problems (Rashad,
Mensah, Barker, Leatherman, Kelley and Agins, 2012).
The job motivation of
health workers has many drivers. Motivation can be defined as ‘an individual’s
degree of willingness to exert and maintain an effort towards organizational
goals’ and can be influenced at many levels; the individual, organization,
health sector, and the community. Workers’ individual goals, self-concepts,
expectations, and experiences are important individual level determinants of
motivation. Health workers may be motivated by several factors. They may, for
example, be motivated because they have been trained for the job and feel they
have the ability to perform well, and/or they expect a return either monetary,
such as financial incentives or income, or non-pecuniary, such as trust or
reputation (Franco, Bennett and Kanfer, 2002).
At the organizational level, structures,
processes, resources, relationships with peers, and institutional rules may
affect motivation and the ability to deliver a service. This includes the sense
of belonging and justice within the organization, which may be affected by the
way benefits are distributed among workers. A positive sense of justice
requires transparent management and communication. Health workers’ motivations
are also influenced by community expectations of the services delivered, and
their interactions with and feedback from clients (Khim, 2016).
Job motivation consists
of two broad categories: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Both represent a
return from a job. A doctor, for example, may be motivated in doing his or her
job because of the opportunities to meet and assist patients, which is
intrinsic motivation, and/or because he or she is paid to do the job, which is
extrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation may also be non-financial, such as
recognition, commendation, or opportunities for continuing education or
training (Prytherch, Kagone, Aninanya, Williams, Kakoko and Leshabari, 2013).
Motivation varies by
gender, the type of health worker, training, and job tenure. The factors
driving motivation change according to the local context. There are numerous
factors that drive job motivation and performance, which are country-specific.
They include financial incentives, career development, and opportunities for
training and continuing education. Factors within the working environment, such
as resources, facility quality, management and leadership, working
relationships, performance appraisal, and communications, also contribute to
worker motivation (Irimu, Greene, Gathara, Kihara ,Maina and Mbori-Ngacha , 2014).
greatly influence staff motivation and practices regarding quality improvement
and patient safety. Health sector reforms in any of these areas can affect
motivation through changes in organizational culture, resource provision,
reporting structures, human resource management, channels of accountability,
and interactions with clients and communities (Prytherch, Kagone, Aninanya,
Williams, Kakoko and Leshabari, 2013).
The health care sector is
important, and the quality and efficiency of service depend to a large extent
on human labour. Poor worker motivation can greatly affect health outcomes and
patient safety. Poor worker motivation is common and can manifest as lack of
courtesy to patients; tardiness and absenteeism; poor process quality, such as
failure to conduct proper patient examinations; and failure to treat patients
in a timely manner. In the workforce, it can manifest in high staff turnover
rates, high vacancy rates and indifferent performance ( Gilson and Heggenhougen
Motivation is, therefore, tied to job
performance. High job motivation is much more likely to lead to high job
performance, which is the target of employers ( Biri and Iwu, 2014).Performance
of employees in any organization is vital, not only for the growth of the
organization, but also for the growth of individual employees (Meyer and Peng
2006). Also, performance on the job can be assessed at all levels of employment
such as: Personnel decision relating to promotion, job rotation, job
enrichments etc (Aidis, 2005; Meyer and Peng 2006).
Performance of members of
any organization depends on the ability to effectively interact with their
superiors, subordinates and co-workers within the organization and consumers,
suppliers and general public outside. Workplace relationship therefore is a
very important issue involving any organization. Most organizations have people
problems rather than business problems. People problems are due to faulty
interpersonal relations, which hinder the attainment of organizational goal.
Efforts should be made therefore to enhance the interpersonal skills of the
people at work (Obakpolo, 2015).
have an advantageous impact on both organizational and individual variables.
Research has demonstrated that friendships at work can improve individual
employee attitudes such as job satisfaction, job commitment, engagement and
perceived organizational support (Morrison, 2009). In addition, employee’s
negative work attitudes can be mitigated when peers act as confidantes to
discuss bad and unpleasant work experiences (Song and Olshfski, 2008).
In today’s corporate
world, there is a need for work to be done as quick as possible, and for this
purpose, working professionals need to have good relationship between each of
her. Healthy professional relations can be maintained by effective workplace
communication and team work. Workplace relationships gradually develop with
good team participation with other members. On the other hand, these
relationships may deteriorate when a person leaves the group and stops being in
touch (Stephen, 2010). It is against this background that the study examines
the motivation of health workers and workplace relationship in a hospital
environment with reference to some selected health workers in Lagos State.
of the Problem
Most countries especially
less developed ones have been found to have less than 50% of the required staff
available to provide health care in most health institutions, and in most,
health care services are provided by non-qualified staff (WHO, 2006,Hongoro and
Health Workers are
leaving their workplaces because of difficult working conditions. This portents
grave danger to the poor who want to access health care, this scenario is no
different in Nigeria as many health workers are leaving for greener pastures.
The series of industrial unrest seen in the Nigerian health sector is indeed
alarming. The frequency and intensity of the strikes have created a serious
lacuna in health care services provision and the trust patients have in our
health system has been eroded.
Organisations around the
world consist of people with similar aim, objective, goals and insights, who
cooperatively join hands to achieve what an individual cannot achieve in
isolation. If therefore, the people that make the place will not relate
positively with one another then, the goals of the organisation can hardly be
achieved. There are organisations where there are no cordial relationships
among staff members, and subordinates and superiors; for example, when strife,
jealousy, hatred, bias, backbiting, witch-hunting, all of these and many more
co-existing with the people, there is bound to be conflict which may not be
healthy for the organisation. Hence, for a healthy atmosphere in any
organisation, the people must understand their differences; there must be the
“give and take” which is the basis of a true and genuine relationship.
Therefore the gap of the study is to investigate the influence of motivation
and workplace relationship among health workers in a healthcare setting.
of the Study
This study is to
investigate health workers motivation and the effect on workers relationship
using selected hospitals in Lagos State. The following
objectives are to achieve the purpose of the study.
1. To examine types of
motivation and its influence among health workers in Lagos State.
2. To examine the
influence of workplace relationship among health workers in Lagos State.
3. To determine the
effect of socio-economic characteristics (Sex, age, marital status, educational
qualification and income) on motivation of health workers in Lagos State.
1. Will team work motivate health workers in private and public
sector in Lagos State?
2. Will interpersonal relationship motivate health workers in Lagos
3.Will income motivate health workers in Lagos
H01: Team work will not significantly motivate
health workers in private and public sector in Lagos State
H02: Interpersonal relationship will not
significantly motivate health workers in Lagos State
H03: Income will not significantly motivate
health workers in Lagos State
of the Study
The findings from this study would be of great value to government,
practitioners and health care owners. In this sense, it will help government,
practitioners and health care owners to know the required working conditions
that would enhance health workers performance and facilitate higher
productivity. It will also help sensitize the government on areas in which they
need to focus more attention to health workers so as to boost their morale and
hence elicit better efforts towards achieving their goals and organizational
Finally, the study will also act as a
source of reference for further studies to be done on human resource in higher
institutions in Nigeria. Future researchers will also benefit from this study
because it will provide them with relevant information on the topic.
Delimitation of the Study
The study will consist of health workers in public and private hospitals
in Lagos State. The sample for the study will be selected through random
sampling techniques. The sample for this study will comprise of 50 health
workers in Ikeja and Gbagada area of Lagos State. The study will employed the
use of a structured research instrument titled “Motivation of Health workers
and Workplace Relationship (MHWWR) designed by the researcher. The
questionnaire will be administered personally by the researcher having taking
permission from the appropriate quarters.
Finally, the data will be analyzed using descriptive and inferential
statistics of T-test and Chi-Square at 0.05 level of significance in analyzing
the data collected.
The scope of this study is to examine health workers motivation and the
effect on workers relationship using selected hospitals in Lagos State.
The study will be restricted to the following selected hospitals such as
Gbagada General Hospital Ifako, Apapa General Hospital, Solid Rock Hospital, R-
Jolad Hospital and Aniyun Hospital.
Motivation: Motivation can be defined as a
person’s degree of willingness toward achieving an individual goal that is
consistent with that of the organization and the reasons underlying behavior
which can be either intrinsic or extrinsic
Relations: Interpersonal relationship at work
constitutes the day to day interaction between co-workers, or managers and
employees. These relations are a natural part of the work environment and are
usually pleasant and creative, but sometimes the source of tension and
workplace is a location or building where people perform physical or mental
work in order to earn a living.
satisfaction is a personal feeling of contentment which a health workers has
and exhibits towards his or her work situation.
Something given in return for or get from job
completed, superior performance.
“A pre-set regular recompense, normally compensated on a monthly basis”.
The progress of an employee from one employment level to a new employment level
that having a high salary package, high level designation and frequently, more
“One-time cash or non-cash award for significant outstanding performance”.
Performance: Employee performance is defined as
whether a person executes their job duties and responsibilities well. Many
companies asses their employee's performance on an annual or quarterly basis in
order to define certain areas that need improvement. Performance is a critical
factor in organizational success.