THE EFFECTS OF HEALTH WORKERS JOB SATISFACTION ON HEALTH CARE IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL IN LAGOS STATE

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ABSTRACT

This study investigated the Effects of Health Workers Job Satisfaction on Health Care in a Tertiary Hospital in Lagos State. The purpose of this research was to determine the level of health workers overall job performance, to identify the factors influencing job satisfaction of health workers, to identify health workers reason to stay in the health care setting and to identify health workers reason to leave in the health care setting. The descriptive survey research method was used to assess the respondents’ opinions using  questionnaire and the sampling technique. In this study, 50 (fifty) respondents were selected and used as samples to represent the population of the study. Four (4) research questions and two (2) null hypotheses were formulated and tested in this study. Also, the ANOVA statistical tool was used to test and analyses the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance at the end of the exercise, the following results were obtained: Hypothesis one revealed that Job satisfaction will have a significant effect on health care delivery in a tertiary hospital while hypothesis two indicated that there is a significant difference in the level of health workers overall job performance. Based on the findings from the study the following recommendations were made on the basis of the findings of this study which include the following:  Interventions should be carried out to increase levels of job satisfaction among healthcare workers by reinforcing relevant human resources polices, improving working conditions and compensation. Priority should be given to improving relationships between management and healthcare workers and increasing decision-making latitude among staff members. It is recommended that healthcare workers’ job be redesigned to have a scope of enrichment and be of interest. Involving the healthcare staff in a cooperative, team approach will allow for consideration of ways to improve aspects relating to job satisfaction.  Improving the work environment so that it provides a context in line with the aspirations of healthcare staff is likely to increase job satisfaction and consequently have a positive effect on individual, organizational and quality of health care services and Improved working climate, suitable and market compatible perks and benefits, taking efforts to improve the career structure including capacity building, promotions and giving due rewards on job performance

 

Keywords: Health Workers, Job Satisfaction Attitude, Health Care in Tertiary Hospital

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGES

Title Page                                                                              i

Certification                                                                          ii

Dedication                                                             iii

Acknowledgments                                                             iv

Abstract                                                                            v

Table of Contents                                                                vi

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Introduction                                                                    1

Statement of the Problem                                              4

Purpose of the Study                                                             5

Research Questions                                                5

Research H­ypotheses                                                 6

Significance of the Study                                                  6

Scope of the Study                                                      7

Definition of Terms                                                      7

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction                                                          10

Nature of Job Satisfaction                                  12

Job Satisfaction Theories                                        14       

Job Satisfaction in Public Healthcare Environment      18

Motivation of Health Workers and Workplace Relationship    23

Job Satisfaction and Productivity                     25

Job Satisfaction and Service Delivery                                29

Job Satisfaction and Work Performance      31

Determinants of Job Satisfaction                                        32

Factors Affection Job Satisfaction of health care Workers Staff Relations               35

Job Satisfaction in Public Healthcare Environment             37

Summary of Literature Review                                        38

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Method                                              40

Population and Sampling Procedures                              41

Research Instrument                                                        41

Data Collection Techniques                                       42

Validation of Instrument                                                   42

Reliability of Instrument                                                   43

Method of Data Analysis                                  43

 

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSES AND RESULTS

Introduction                                          44

Descriptive Analysis of Respondents                   44

Research Questions                                           48

Hypotheses Testing                                                    50

Summary of Findings                          51

Discussion of Findings                                               52

 

CHAPTER FIVE:   DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Introduction                                                 54

Summary of the Study                          54

Conclusions                                           55

Recommendations                                            56

Suggestion for Further Studies                                  57

 

REFERENCES                                                             58

APPENDIX                                                               61


 

 

 



CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION


Introduction

Every healthcare institute is expected by the public to render quality and professional healthcare services. In order to do so, healthcare institutes need employees to be satisfied with their jobs. Health care workers can be a valuable source of information about factors that enable or hinder them from providing high quality care. The Nigerian health system consists of both a private for profit health sector and a public health sector. The majority of Nigerians rely on the public health care sector for their health care needs but expenditure in the private sector far outweighs that of the public sector. This scenario, exacerbated by the global financial crisis, has resulted in an over-serviced private sector, and under-serviced public sector. Provision of good quality health care requires that the whole health care system be functioning with well trained, motivated and satisfied staff, adequate services and equipment, good referral networks and appropriate management and support. The absence of some of these would lead to poor quality (Khumalo, 2014).

Health services are affected by many factors such as human resources, delivery system and health infrastructures. Among these human resources is a vital component in delivering health services. Job satisfaction of the health workers is highly important in building up employee motivation and efficiency as higher job satisfaction determine better employee performance and higher level of patients’ satisfaction. Job dissatisfaction resulting in burn out and turn over would exacerbate the current shortage and results in serious under staffing of health care facilities. This has the potential to have a negative impact on the delivery of patient care because there is evidence to suggest that reduction in health professional staff below certain level is related to poor patient outcomes (Yami, Hamza, Hassen, Jira and Sudhakar, 2011).

Job satisfaction in the health care field and the consequences of that satisfaction are good indicators of the well-being and quality of life of the workers. The presence of highly motivated personnel who are satisfied with their job and their employer increases productivity and the quality of service. In the healthcare sector, the job satisfaction of professionals plays an effective and strong role in their performance and is further reflected in the health and satisfaction of the patients. In addition, the job satisfaction of health care professionals also determines the quality of services delivered by them to the respective communities (Garcia, 2000).

Job satisfaction is a multi-layered behaviour that depicts a professional’s reactions and feelings towards his/her job. Job satisfaction generally describes how content an individual is with his/her job or the feelings people have about their jobs. The most focal employees’ attitude is job satisfaction and employees have views about various aspects of their job, their career and for whom they work (Jayasuriya et al., 2012).  This is epitomized in medical care provision where a health care worker’s satisfaction influence their performance resultantly, compliance among their patients. An organization’s overall productivity and quality of individual work is related to job satisfaction (Kisa, 2006).

High job satisfaction can improve the enthusiasm of the staff and is beneficial to the success and progress of the organisation. It can lead to lower turnover and high quality service. Healthcare staff with low job satisfaction may suffer from medical problems themselves and individual employee health may influence the overall stability of the healthcare staff. Dissatisfied employees are more likely to leave the organisation, and as a result, the remaining employees may engage in counterproductive activities such as low-quality service and cause damage to equipment. There are several factors are associated with job satisfaction. A survey conducted by Maissiat (2015) indicated that job satisfaction was associated with professional accomplishment, freedom of expression and appreciation. An investigation undertaken by Atif (2015), revealed that age, educational background, years of service and income were significantly associated with job satisfaction among doctors.

The job satisfaction of health professionals has been shown to be influenced by a range of individual and organisational factors including personality, the work itself, work organisation, remuneration, workload, interactions with colleagues, training opportunities, recognition, and leadership styles. Importantly, job satisfaction depends not only on the characteristics of a job but also on employees’ expectations of what their job should provide (Barriball, 2012).


Statement of the Problem

Most countries especially less developed ones have been found to have less than 50% of the required staff available to provide health care in most health institutions, and in most, health care services are provided by non-qualified staff (WHO, 2006, Hongoro and Normand, 2006).

Health Workers are leaving their workplaces because of difficult working conditions. This portents grave danger to the poor who want to access health care, this scenario is no different in Nigeria as many health workers are leaving for greener pastures. The series of industrial unrest seen in the Nigerian health sector is indeed alarming. The frequency and intensity of the strikes have created a serious lacuna in health care services provision and the trust patients have in our health system has been eroded.

Organisations around the world consist of people with similar aim, objective, goals and insights, who cooperatively join hands to achieve what an individual cannot achieve in isolation. If therefore, the people that make the place will not relate positively with one another then, the goals of the organisation can hardly be achieved. There are organisations where there are no cordial relationships among staff members, and subordinates and superiors; for example, when strife, jealousy, hatred, bias, backbiting, witch-hunting, all of these and many more co-existing with the people, there is bound to be conflict which may not be healthy for the organisation. Hence, for a healthy atmosphere in any organisation, the people must understand their differences; there must be the “give and take” which is the basis of a true and genuine relationship. Therefore the gap of the study is to investigate the effects of health workers job satisfaction on health care in a tertiary hospital in Lagos State (LASUTH, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital).


Purpose of the Study

This study is to investigate the effects of health workers job satisfaction on health care in a tertiary hospital in Lagos State.The following objectives are to achieve the purpose of the study.

1.      To determine the level of health workers overall job performance.

2.      To identify the factors influencing job satisfaction of health workers.

3.      To identify health workers reason to stay in the health care setting.

4.      To identify health workers reason to leave in the health care setting.


Research Questions

1. What are the effects of job satisfaction on health care delivery.

2. What are the factors influencing job satisfaction of health workers?

3.What are the reasons why health workers intend to stay in the health care setting?

4. What are the reasons why health workers intend to leave in the health care setting?  

 

Research Hypotheses

Hypothesis 1

H01:     Job satisfaction will have no significant influence on health care delivery in a tertiary hospital in Lagos State

Hypothesis 2

H02:   There is no significant difference in the level of health workers overall job

performance

 

Significance of the Study

The study is relevant in the sense that it will add more to the existing literature in the area of health workers job satisfaction in a health care setting.

The research will also help government, practitioners and health care owners to know the required working conditions that would enhance health workers performance and facilitate higher productivity. It will also help sensitize the government on areas in which they need to focus more attention to health workers so as to boost their morale and hence elicit better efforts towards achieving their goals and organizational goals.

This study will provided information that is important to practice, health care administration and policy maker, and health education. This study will provide input for policy maker on changing worker characteristics, changing job characteristics, and working environment adjustment. It may also help in job placement strategies to retain more staff. Again, for education and training of staff this study may indicate the area of interest for provision of problem solving education.

Administrators could use this information to build solid and supportive units. This is important because the culture of the unit and the quality of health workers staff affects every aspect of a health worker practice and the patients’ care. Health care managers and practitioners should be aware of the hardships that health worker face in trying to give quality care to patients. Therefore, it can be said that knowing a nurse’s tendency and difficulties will help predict the nurse’s job satisfaction and intention to quit.

Finally, the study will also act as a source of reference for further studies to be done on human resource in higher institutions in Nigeria. Future researchers will also benefit from this study because it will provide them with relevant information on the topic.

 

Scope of the Study

The scope of this study is to examine health workers job satisfaction on health care in a tertiary hospital in Lagos State with reference to Gbagada General Hospital (LASUTH, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital).

 

Definition of Terms

Job Satisfaction: Job satisfaction is a personal feeling of contentment which a health workers has and exhibits towards his or her work situation.

Motivation: Motivation can be defined as a person’s degree of willingness toward achieving an individual goal that is consistent with that of the organization and the reasons underlying behavior which can be either intrinsic or extrinsic

Interpersonal Relations: Interpersonal relationship at work constitutes the day to day interaction between co-workers, or managers and employees. These relations are a natural part of the work environment and are usually pleasant and creative, but sometimes the source of tension and frustration.

Workplace: A workplace is a location or building where people perform physical or mental work in order to earn a living.

Rewards: Something given in return for or get from job completed, superior performance.

Payment: “A pre-set regular recompense, normally compensated on a monthly basis”.

Promotion: The progress of an employee from one employment level to a new employment level that having a high salary package, high level designation and frequently, more employment responsibilities.

Recognitions: “One-time cash or non-cash award for significant outstanding performance”.

Employee Performance: Employee performance is defined as whether a person executes their job duties and responsibilities well. Many companies asses their employee's performance on an annual or quarterly basis in order to define certain areas that need improvement. Performance is a critical factor in organizational success.

Job Dissatisfaction: It is a feeling of unhappiness about the work that one does in his/her own appraisal of work.

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