attempted to analyze the influence of excessive intake of alcohol on University
of Benin students. The survey research
design was used to carry out the study, and the random sampling technique was
used to select students from the Faculty of Education and Social Sciences. Two hundred and forty-eight (248) respondents
were randomly selected from the mentioned faculties. Questionnaire was used to elicit responses
from respondents. The validity of the
questionnaire was carried out by three lecturers from the department. The reliability of the instrument was
determined using the test-retest method.
instrument was administered to thirty-two respondents who were not part of the
final study, and after an internal of few days the same instrument was again
administered on the same group of respondents.
The scores obtained were analyzed using Pearson product moment correlation
coefficient. The data obtained through
questionnaire were analyzed using frequency counts and simple percentages.
from the analysis indicated that:
Majority of students take alcohol.
Excessive intake of alcohol can be responsible for
student’s poor academic performance.
Some students take alcohol because of home problems.
Most students that take alcohol agree to taking it
because of their friends are taking it.
Some students agree to taking alcohol when they are
depressed believing that alcohol will improve their state of mind.
Students take alcohol to eliminate fear.
emphasis should be laid on the accessibility of alcohol. Adolescents are sensitive to price increases
as they generally have limited incomes.
If the price of alcohol is increased students will not be able to afford
it. Parents should demonstrate sensible
drinking behaviours, and parents should be enlightened on the effects and
consequences of alcohol intake so they can also encourage their children on the
dangers of alcohol. Campaign against
excessive intake of alcohol should be planned and carried out by the
authorities. Intervention strategies
should be developed for alcohol-related infractions on the campus.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
of the Study 1
of the Problem 7
the Study 8
of the Study 9
of the Study 9
of the Study 10
of Terms 10
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Alcohol Abuse 11
Deviant Behaviour 16
Student’s Poor Academic Performance 20
Alcohol and Home
Influence on Alcohol 27
Alcohol on the State of Mind 31
METHOD OF THIS STUDY
of the Study 39
Sampling Techniques 39
the Instrument 40
of the Instrument 40
of the Instrument 40
Data Collection 41
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION
AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 43
Discussion of Results 54
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY,
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Findings and Conclusion 67
Appendix 1 81
Appendix 2 84
Background of the Study
Alcohol is a psychoactive drug that
has a depressant effect. People have
been brewing and fermenting alcoholic drinks since the dawn of
civilization. Consumed in moderate
amount, alcoholic beverages are relaxing and in some cases may even have
beneficial effects in heart, health, consumed in excess alcohol is poisonous to
human systems and is considered a drug.
When people take (drink) alcohol, it
is absorbed into their bloodstream. It
affects the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord), which controls
virtually all body functions. The
immediate physical effects of drinking alcohol range from mild mood changes to
complete los of co-ordination, vision, balance and speech, any which can be
signals of acute alcohol intoxication or drunkenness. These effects usually wear-off in a matter of
hours after a person stops drinking (American Journal of Addiction, 2003).
The word ‘alcohol’ probably has its
origin in Arabic meaning ‘a fine dust’ or ‘essence’. There are four main types of alcohol:
METHYL ALCOHOL - CH3
ETHYL ALCOHOL - C2
PROPHL ALCOHOL - C3
BUTYL ALCOHOL - C4
ETHYL Alcohol is the one that is the
spirit in intoxicating drinks, and its concentration ranges from 4 to 59%. Alcohol has very valuable antiseptic
properties, and when used outside the body is very useful chemical (A guide to
family health, 1983).
An alcohol beverage is a drink containing
ethanol, commonly known as alcohol.
Alcoholic beverages are divided into three general classes: Beers, Wines and Spirits. They are legally consumed in most countries,
and over one hundred countries have laws regulating their production, sale and
consumption. In particular, such laws
specify the minimum age at which a person may legally buy or drink them. This minimum age varies between sixteen and
twenty-five years, depending upon the country and the type of drink. Most nations set it at eighteen years of age
(International Center for Alcohol Policies.
Retrieved 2009: Minimum age limit
worldwide). The production and
consumption of alcohol occurs in most cultures of the world, from
hunter-gatherer peoples to nation-states (Arnold, 2005). Alcoholic beverages are often an important
part of social events in this cultures (European Beer Guide, 2006).
According to WHO (2012), in many parts
of the world, drinking alcoholic beverages is a common feature of social
gatherings. Nevertheless, the consumption
of alcohol carries a risk of adverse health and social consequences related to
its intoxicating, toxic and dependence – producing properties. In addition to the chronic diseases that may
develop in those who drink large amounts of alcohol over a number of years,
alcohol U.K. is also associated with an increased risk of acute health
conditions such as injuries, including from traffic accidents.
There is a general believe that
alcohol performs a number of services that have become almost indispensible to
modern society and living. In as much as
alcohol is a reliable means for social integration, as well as symbol of social
solidarity and also lubricant for social intercourse during which it provides
the much needed atmosphere for the exchange of ideas, information and
discussion of politics, the ills or detriment of excessive alcohol intake
cannot be ignored or overlooked.
Historically doctors have promoted
alcohol for its perceived health benefits and most recently for protection
against coronary heart disease. There is
evidence of cardiovascular benefits from drinking one to two drinks per day;
however, the health benefits from moderate intake of alcohol are
controversial. Alcohol should be
regarded as a recreational drug with potentially serious adverse effects on
health and it is not recommended for cardio-protection in the place of safer
and proven traditional methods such as exercise and proper nutrition (Sunkiewic
& Welglarz, 2009). Larger amounts of
blood alcohol can impair brain function and eventually cause
unconsciousness. An extreme overdose of
alcohol poisoning can be fatal. Alcohol
taken in excess can depress brain activities to the point where memory muscular
co-ordination and balance can be disturbed hence the reason for concern as
regards this situation amongst students with emphasis on University of Benin
Purposeful production of alcoholic
beverages is common in many cultures and often reflects their cultural and
religious peculiarities as much as their geographical and sociological
conditions. The discovery of late Stone
Age beer jugs has established the fact that purposely fermented beverages
existed at least as early as C. 10,000 B.C. (Patrick, 1952).
Alcohol is used by certain persons for
several reasons, based on several factors.
Its use is related to factors ranging from emotional, social, religious,
physical, to psychological. Some of the
reasons why people take alcohol therefore includes:
To quench thirst
To promote sleep
To spice up social gathering
To improve appetite
To kill anxiety
Influence from other people
To relieve pains
reasons such as curiosity or wanting to be part of the group. Some drink because it makes them feel better
or older or because it gives them certain image among friends. Some people need
to be drunk everyday just to get through the day, because they are dependent on
in this study our focus is on male and female students of the University of
Statement of the Problem
It is interesting to know that
excessive intake of alcohol is detrimental to the health and wellbeing of an
individual, and students who are supposed to be enlightened still indulge in
drinking alcohol excessively. This
brings to mind the need to know why this is so, hence the reason for this research. The consequences and effects of excessive
alcohol intake is too high and this the researcher hopes to find out in this
Is excessive intake of alcohol responsible for
deviant behaviours amongst students?
Is alcohol responsible for student’s poor
Is the intake of alcohol influenced by home
Do alcohol influenced by peer group loyalty?
Is alcohol responsible for student’s improved
state of mind?
Is the excessive intake of alcohol by students
induced by the desire to eliminate fear?
Purpose of the Study
The major aim for this study is to
find out the influence of excessive intake of alcohol and its consequences on
the health and wellbeing of the students of UNIBEN. To point out the effects of excessive intake
of alcohol on the students, and how it affects them academically, physically
Significance of the Study
The study centers on the effects,
consequences and factors influencing excessive intake of alcohol amongst UNIBEN
students while still in school or on campus.
To enable us discover these reasons and effects so that they can be
addressed and dealt with to avoid the hazard or disadvantages it brings to
students and the educational system as a whole, due to the fact that alcohol affects
the brain and performance of students.
Delimitation/Scope of the Study
This study was delimited to the male
and female students of the Faculty of Education and Social Science, University
of Benin, Benin City.
Limitation of the Study
Difficulty in getting current or
recent materials related to this study.
Students nonchalant attitude and biased response while sharing and
collecting the questionnaire.
Definition of Terms
Alcohol: According to new Oxford Advanced
Learners Dictionary, it is the clear liquid that is found in drinks such as
beer, wine, etc. and is used in medicines, clearing products, etc.
Alcoholics: A person who regularly drinks too much
alcohol or suffers from a physical disorder caused by this.
Ferment: To experience a clinical change because of
the action of yeast, or bacteria, often changing sugar to alcohol; to make
something change in this way. Sugar is
converted with alcohol by a process of fermentation.