Tourism is one
the largest and fastest growing industries in the world. It is an increasingly
important source of income, employment and wealth in many countries. Its rapid
expansion has, however, had detrimental environmental (and Scio- cultural)
impacts on many regions. In this research I examine the main economic benefits
and environmental impacts of tourism and review the development of the
international sustainable tourism agenda. While much of international tourism
activity takes place with the developed world, this research work will focus on
the (economic) development of the industry in developing countries like Nigeria
(Owerri Imo State) to be précised, I conclude that new approaches to
sustainable tourism development in these countries should not only set to
minimize local environmental impact, but also give greater priority to
community participation and poverty alleviation. I argue in particular that
more emphasis should be given to a pro poor tourism approach at both national
and international levels.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page - - - - - i
Approval page - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - iii
Acknowledgement - - - iv
Abstract - - - - - v
Table of content - - - vi-vii
1.0 Introduction - - - 1
of the study - - 2-6
of the problem - 7
of the study - 8
question - - 9
of hypothesis - 9-10
of the study - 11
of the study - - 11-12
of the study - - 12
of terms - - 13
review - - 14
2.1 Introduction - - - 14-28
the poor - - 28-31
approach - - - 32-36
(WTO) - - - 37-42
of tourist facilities - 43-45
design and methodology 46
3.1 Introduction - - - - 47
design - - - 47
of data collection - 47
and sample size - 48-49
technique - - - 49
and reliability of measuring 50
of data analysis - - 51-52
and analysis of data 53
4.1 Introduction - - - - 54
of data - - - 54
of data - - - 55-71
of hypothesis - - 72-84
of results - - 85
Conclusion and Recommendation 86
5.1 introduction - - - 87
of Findings - 87
5.3 Conclusion - - - 88-89
5.4 Recommendation - - 89-90
References - - - 91
Appendix - - - - 92
Questionnaire - - - 93-95
Tourism is a short term movement of people to
destination outside their residential areas primarily for leisure recreation,
sport and business transactions. There is domestic and international tourism.
Domestic is the movement within one’s state or country while international
involved movement from one’s country to another. Modern tourist industry in the
western world started in the 19th century with the wake of
industrial revolution that increased the ranks of middle classes in Europe and United States
and this led to the increase in number of people found themselves with both the
money and the time to travel.
world wide reputedly generates an estimate of 4 trillion dollars annually.
Today tourism has become an all year business. In Nigeria, Owerri Imo State to be precise
the impact of tourism have created job opportunities, and the increase in
poverty alleviation has risen beyond expectation. It is a welcome development
and will increase its impact if more attention is given to it, from all
stakeholders, government etc.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
the impact of tourism has been measured in terms of its contribution to gross
national product and employment created. Often tourism overall impact on the
economy is estimated by looking at the effect
of tourism expenditure through direct, indirect and induced spending
using a multipher effect approach. Tourism growth is most often measured
through increase in international arrivals, length of stay, bed occupancy,
tourism expenditure and the value of tourism spending. However, none of these
provide any means of determining the scale of the impact on the poor or even to
trends which result from overall growth or decline on the poor. While in the
literature there are references to the importance of tourism in the least
developed countries (LDCs) developing countries, rural and marginalized areas
there is very little consideration of the impact of tourism on the poor. The
assumption has been that any tourism development will eventually benefit the
poor through the “tickle down” effect. There can be no doubt that tourism
development does employ those in the lower social and economic classes but then
is growing body of evidence that generate low paying and low status employment.
In addition, poorly planned and managed tourism can destroy ecological system
raise the cost of living for local people and damage social and cultural
traditions and life styles.
recently those engaged in tourism development have not sought to demonstrate
the impact of tourism on poverty alleviation the focus has been on major
economic impact and its potential to bring economic growth to poor and
marginalized individuals and communities rather than on measuring and
demonstrating specific impact on poverty.
the development community the focus of most interventions has shifted from
identifying ways in which economic growth in developing countries can
contribute to overall development to a much more specific focus on the
alleviation of poverty.
has been growing realization that economic growth may not necessarily alleviate
poverty and that policy commitment to alleviate poverty can only be achieved if
there is a specific and concerted effort to raise the well – being of the poor
in developing countries. Within tourism planning and development there was also
been a growing realization that tourism development may not be alleviating
poverty and that proper tourism policies and practice must be developed. It
clear manifestation of this new policy focus at the international and regional
level can be seen in the policies and programme of various international
organization such as the WTO, ESCAP and ADB.
millennium development goals are the most recent and explicit statement of this
commitment with an explicit focus on alleviating and reducing the numbers of
people living the extreme poverty. It is widely recognized in the literature
that poverty is multi- faceted. The poor have low incomes and lower levels of
consumption than those who are not living in poverty. The poor are characterized
by lack of purchasing power in the market and buy human underdevelopment, they
are generally socially excluded and have minimal access to education, health
and other forms of social welfare enjoyed by others in the society who are not
poor, they suffer relative depravation and are generally marginalized in the
decision making process. They generally lack marketable skills and have few
employment opportunities. The poor lack access to saving and capital and
generally experience high levels of vulnerability to changes in market
conditions. The result is that their basic needs are met and do not have a
state of well being their condition is sometimes referred to as “ill being”
interest of this research work is aimed at a broader focus to tourism related
poverty alleviation is important because it emphasizes the multi- faceted
nature of poverty and the relevance of looking at the broad range of impact
which tourism may have on livelihoods directing it focus on tourism Nigeria
with more emphasize one Nekede zoo Owerri Imo state and beyond.
THE ORIGIN OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT
hospitality is derived from a French word “hospice” meaning to provide care and
shelter for traveler. Walker (1999) observed
that hospitality begun from France
in 1443 by Nicols Rolin. The most known hospice was hospice Beaune in the
Burgundy region, situated in one of the most beautiful regions in France, the Cole de Beavne located near Dijon. Beavne is taken as
the capital of Burgundian Wireland, and their wine is the best so far. For
instance, in Greece and Rome, it is traced to the ancient Greece and Rome
(1700Bc). While is European continent, it is traced to the eight century when
charlemageze built houses for pilgrims where the pilgrims rested, before
continuing their journey to the holy land. The pilgrims were received in these
rest houses so as to ensure repeat patronage.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
to make a sound case for the benefit of tourism to the poor and poor
communities there is need to move beyond the language of multiphers and
“trickle down” and to identify specific benefits to poor individuals and
communities. It claims are made about, for example facilitating local community
access to the tourism market and building on and complementing existing
livelihood strategies, there is a need to be able to identify which poor
individuals and communities have benefited and by how much. This will required
reliance on accounting rather than on economic and to report in detail on the
specific poverty impact of tourism initiatives which are claimed to make a
contribution to poverty alleviation. In addition, there is a need to be able to
identify specifically which poor people benefit and by how much, where these
benefits are not specifically financial and cannot easily be translated into
financial terms there is a need to use auditable quantitative methods. This
analysis will be particularly important in convincing the development agencies
and banks that tourism can make a contribution to poverty alleviation.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY The purposes
of writing this research are as follows
people living in Nigeria to
take their holidays therein and people from abroad to visit Nigeria.
the provision and improvement of tourism amenities and facilities in Nigeria.
advisory and information services to state and local governments
To promote and
undertake research in the field of tourism in the state and local government
technical advice to state and local
government in the field tourism and
classify and grade all hospitality and tourism enterprises, travel agencies and
tour operators in such manners as may be prescribed.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
a. Does tourism provide foreign exchange
b. Does tourism bring about employment to the
c. Does tourism encourage improvement of
facilities e.g hotels, good roads and other social infrastructures?
d. Does tourism contribute to environment and
e. Does tourism helps in conserving wildlife?
f. Does tourism help to utilizer areas of low and
unreliable rainfall which are not attractive to farmers?
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
to provide a guide to this study, the following hypotheses were formulated.
Tourism cannot alleviate poverty with economic gain through the creation of
full employment or the development of SME opportunities through sales to
tourism business or to tourist.
Tourism can alleviate poverty with economic gain through the creation of full
part time employment or the development of SME opportunities through sales to
tourism business or to tourist.
Tourism cannot alleviate poverty through other livelihood benefits such as
access to portable water, roads which bring benefits to poor producers through, for example
improved access markets, improved health or education etc.
Tourism can alleviate poverty through other livelihood benefits such as access
to portable water, roads.
Tourism can alleviate poverty through opportunities and capacity for engagement
in decision – making in order that the poor are able to improve their
livelihood by securing better access to tourist and tourism enterprises.
Tourism cannot alleviate poverty through opportunities and capacity for
engagement in decision making in order that the poor are able to improve their
livelihood by securing better access to tourist and tourism enterprises.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
All those that may be interested and willing in
carrying out further research/ study on poverty alleviation through tourism
with references to Nekede zoo Owerri Imo state.
destination in Nigeria will
also derive great assistance from this research work in determining how to
manage and fully developed in African and Nigeria to be precise as it in the
developed countries of the world.
research work tries to outline ways of minimizing and ensuring that the readers
understand very well the impact of tourism to poverty alleviation. In another
related development, tourism offer job opportunities to individuals. Therefore
I the researcher found out that this project work is important to readers
because it talks more one tourism development and what it has contributed to
the development of the economy.
OF THE STUDY
good numbers of tourist centers in Nigeria, featly speaking, it will
not be a very east task to study all tourist centres in various stats and communities
where tourist centres are situated so I the researcher picked Nekede zoo Owerri
Imo state. It is this tourist centre that the study is based on. In this
regards, the study becomes the impact of tourism to poverty alleviation with
reference to Nekede 200 Owerri Imo State as one of the tourist centres.
this study, it is usually paramount (more important than anything else) to
defined the scope of the study, thereby reducing the ambiguity (the state of
having more than one possibly meaning) of reducing the whole tourist centres.
However, the study is restricted to the impact of tourism to poverty
alleviation with case study of Nekede zoo Owerri Imo State.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
of the constraints encountered during the research work include the following.
limitation of shortage of finance
assessing the real information
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
TOURISM: Is a short
term movement of people to destination outside their residential areas primary
for leisure recreation, sport or business transactions.
A person who is traveling or visiting a place in pleasure.
DEVELOPMENT: A new event or stage that is likely to affect what happens in a
COMMUNITIES: The feeling of sharing and belonging to a group where you live.
The state of being poor, a lack of something.
ALLEVIATION: To make something less severe.