TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Aims and Objectives 6
1.4 Scope of the Study 7
1.5 Significance of the Study 8
1.6 Definition of Concepts 8
1.7 Organization of the Study
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Causes of Crime
Biological Explanation of Crime 18
Sociological Explanation to Crime
Living with Crime
Crime in Nigeria
Crime Report and Criminal Victimization
The Public and the Police
CHAPTER THREE: THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK AND
Structural Functional Perspective
Unit of Analysis
Method of Sample Selection
Method of Data Collection 60
Method of Analysis
Statement of Hypotheses
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND
Data Presentation and Analysis of Data.
Testing of Hypotheses.
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND
Review of the Study 101
5.1.2 Findings 103
Implications for Further Study 110
Background to the Study
is an everyday phenomenon found to have eaten deep into the heart of every
society. It is a common word which has uncommon connotations, depending on what
an individual or group thinks or defines it, (Hartjen,1978; Sellin 1939). They
observed that since every society has its rules or norms designed to control the
behavior of its member, the study of crime according to the behavioral school
of thought then is the study of those activities that violates socially
prescribed standards, whether or not it breaks some criminal law
Paul Tatpan (1960), refers to crime
as any intention act or omission, in violation of criminal law (statutory and
case law), committed without defense or justification and sanctioned by the
state, as a felony or simple offense. It is therefore evident that criminal
activities have negative impact on society, community, and most especially on
the victims, on which such crimes are perpetrated. Activities such as murder
rape, arson, burglary, gambling, robbery embezzlement assault and prostitution
are examples of these crimes committed. It should be noted that individuals
have the desire to feel safe in their homes places of work, community and
wherever they find themselves. To fulfill this urge, criminal activities are
reported to appropriate authorities, established to safeguard the lives and
properties of its citizens. The criminal justice system is therefore, put in
place to deliver crimes reported to them.
cannot be said to have effectively reduced the rate of criminal activities,
making people lose their faith in the Criminal Justice System (CJS).
Individuals or groups concurrently complain about the injustice they suffer
when nefarious criminal acts are overlooked and treated with such low level of
seriousness. It could be concluded therefore that the major factor adducible to
the loose of faith of individual, groups and corporate bodies, is the perceived
inefficiency of the so-called appropriate bodies.
Statement of the Problem.
Many societies all over the world have had to contend with the
consequences of criminal activities, which include lives and properties, fear
of the unknown, political instability, victimization by conventional criminals,
amongst others. (Fayeye, 2010.)
Even though a member of the society reports a crime to a law
enforcement officer, it would not be counted unless it is recorded in a way
that allows it to be incorporated into the crime statistics, as a consequence,
offending particularly minor offending, may be significantly under counted in
situations where law enforcement officers are overloaded with work or do not
perceive the offending as worth recording. Some crimes reported are not done in
a way that the actual event of things is made known. These crimes lack
uniformity, which produce obvious difficulties in actually investigating and
solving the crimes that are reported. Another causal factor may include the
time frame of the crime. A firsthand account is relatively low. For example, by
the time a robbery case is being reported, the robbers will probably have fled
the victims in the hospital, answering police questions if any is around or
even in the mortuary.
Certain behavior are labeled deviant which in actual fact may not be,
according to the criminal code of that particular society. Members of the
society (victims and witnesses), are most times ignorant of criminal laws. When
such behaviors are reported, they are more or less unimportant. Crimes known to
police (CKP), already certified as reported may not be analyzed as desired by
victims of such immoral acts. Charges may be dropped, even when the perpetrator
is arrested. Such is the situation when there is lack of evidence. Another
popular incidence is the arrest of innocent persons in place of those that
actually committed the crimes. This maybe as a result of being in the wrong
place, at the wrong time.
Pleading guilty to a crime, lower than that which an offender commits
is another major problem. In most cases, it reduces the levity of punishment
and sentence becomes in proportionate to the actual crime committed. Also among
the problems associated with crime reporting, is the dependency of skills on
both the prosecuting counsel and defense counsel, with convictions and
acquaintances actually depending on the professional skills of both counsels.
Another problem associated with the procedure of reporting crimes is
the inconsistencies involved in information given out by the so-called
witnesses, when crimes are being investigated. The illiterate nature of most
citizens about the legal and criminal code of its society poses a greater
threat. Some just give information about a crime thinking that by doing so;
they will be popular, given money for coming forth with’ vital information’.
With this, they say or do anything to act as if they were present when the
crime occurred. This scenario drastically slows down the process of justice.
Aims and Objectives.
The motive behind carrying out this research work is to properly and
carefully scrutinize the effect of behavior contrary to the formal law in the
society, on its victims and to achieve the following aims;
- To assess the actual level of crime as
against reported crimes.
- To highlight the effect or impact of such
reported crimes on their victims.
- To make practical suggestions on how to
reduce the negative effects of crimes.
- To suggest ways in which criminals are to be
punished, for correction.
- To ascertain who exactly can be held
responsible for widespread of criminal activities.
Scope of Study.
This research work is basically concerned with the major effect of
crime reporting on the victims and the impact of proper investigation of
criminal activities amongst members of Lagos metropolitan areas.
For the purpose of accurate and effective research work, the study is
restricted to a selected sample, from the entire metropolis, a representative
of a fair proportion as a whole.
Significance of the Study.
Most importantly, this research work is to contribute to the knowledge
of the criminal activities and how they may be reduced or at most eradicated.
It shall also act as a basis for further investigation or
scrutinization on crime reporting and the various psychological social effects
on its victims.
Lastly, it is an attempt to bring into
limelight; some of the errors involved in the process of crime reporting and
suggest likely solutions on how to improve these services.
1.6 Definition of Concepts.
Crime can be
defined as those activities that break the laws of the land and are subject to
official punishment (Haralambos,1980).
A criminal is a
person who is involved in illegal activities or has been proven guilty or
responsible for a crime.
Deviance may be
defined as any social behavior which departs from that regarded as normal or
socially acceptable within a society or social context, (Becker, 1963). Another
scholar Lemert, (1961) used the term ‘primary deviance’ rather than deviance to
mean the initial act of rule-breaking.
Criminal Justice System (CJS)
The set of
institutions developed as the state response to crime and criminals. (David and
Mary Jary,1991). A variety of organizations that have been created to combat
crime and delinquency. The police, courts and correctional systems together
compose the criminal justice system.
counsel refers to the lawyer, who tries to prove in a court of law that the
person charged with a crime is guilty. (Longman Oxford Dictionary).
This is also a
lawyer, who tries to prove that someone is not guilty of a crime, in a court of
law i.e innocent.
A person who
has been attacked by a criminal.
A person who is
present at the scene of a crime or criminal activity and can describe the
incident clearly and without bias.
It is the
outcome of the existence or occurrence of a particular social action or event.
Organization of Study
The project is
planned and organized into five (5) chapters.
will be based on the entire introduction of the research work, statement of
problems, aims and objectives, significance of the study and So on.
will focus on the review of the various literature that would employed in
explaining the topic-crime reporting and perceived effects, it has on its
chapter will encompass the theoretical framework and research methodology which
will also include the various methods that will be employed in data collection.
chapter will consist of the presentation and analysis of data, according to the
research questions and classification.
chapter shall comprise of the entire project work’s conclusions and