This study investigates the impact of
poverty alleviation programmes on the socio-economic lives of slum dwellers, a
case study of Agege Area of Lagos State. Simple random sampling technique was
used in selecting the population sample.
A questionnaire was constructed from
the hypothesis drawn out by the researcher and was used to elicit information
with regard to the issues under investigation. Through this, data were
collected and analyzed using statistical tools such as chi-square (X2)
test and simple percentage frequency table. The findings showed among other
things that there were divergent views about the impact of Poverty Alleviation
Programme (PAP) and other poverty eradication programmes on the socio-economic
development of Nigeria. More so, the problems encountered during the programmes
include: insincerity on the part of the contractors, inadequate sensitization,
poor coordination, poor funding and others. In the light of these findings,
some suggestions and recommendations were put forward by the researcher to aid
government in tackling the issues raised in the research work, which only can
be corrected by adequate funding by government political stability and
continuity of programmes, proper evaluation of past programmes and why it
either succeeded or failed could aid in ensuring the success of subsequent
programmes, and finally the community should take the ownership of these
programmes and provide a conducive environments for its execution in the
interest of all.
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problems 2
1.3 Objective of the Study 7
1.4 Research Questions 7
1.5 Hypothesis of the Study 7
1.6 Significance of the Study 8
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Limitations of the Study 9
1.9 Definition of Terms 9
2.0 Literature Review 11
2.1 NAPEP’s Review 15
2.2 Government Identified Challenges 16
2.3 Functions of NAPEP 18
2.4 Empirical Literature 21
2.5 Review of Related Literature 28
3.0 Research Methodology 34
3.1 Research Design 34
3.2 Population 34
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques 35
3.5 Instrumentation 35
3.5 Administration of Instrument 35
3.6 Validation of Research Instrument 35
3.7 Reliability of Test Instrument 36
3.8 Data Collection 37
3.9 Method of Data Analysis 37
4.0 Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of
4.1 Analysis of Data 49
4.2 interpretation of Results 53
5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusion and 54
5.1 Summary of Findings 54
5.2 Conclusion 60
5.3 Policy Recommendations 61
5.4 References 66
5.5 Appendix 70
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The concept of poverty and
material deprivation is a critical one in contemporary social discussions.
Social Sciences’ literature is replete with attempt by Economists and other
Social Scientists to conceptualize the phenomenon. Poverty has economic, social
and political ramifications. The poor are materially deprived, socially
alienated and politically excommunicated. Basically, Poverty has been
conceptualized in the following ways:
a. Lack of access to basic needs/goods and
b. Lack of access to productive resources.
Poverty as lack of access to
basic needs/goods is essentially economic or consumption oriented. Thus the
poor are conceived as those individuals or households in a particular society,
incapable of purchasing a specified basket of basic goods and services. Basic
goods as used here include; food, shelter, water, health care, access to
productive resources including education, working skill and tools, political
and civil rights to participate in decisions concerning socio-economic
conditions (Ajakaiye and Adeyeye 2001 in Gbosi, 2004). It is generally agreed
that in conceptualizing poverty, low income or low consumption is its symptom.
The level of poverty in Nigeria
since the implementation of SAP in the 1980s has tremendously increased (UNDP Nigeria,
1998; FOS, 1999; World Bank, 1999).
The poverty profile in Nigeria
showed that the incidence of poverty increased from 28.1% in 1980 to 43.6% in
1985 but declined to 42.7% in 1992 and rose again to 65.6% in 1996 (FOS 1999).
Since 1990 the country has been classified as a poor nation. The UNDP Human
Development Indices (HDI) for 2001 ranked Nigeria the 142nd with HDI of 0.40
among the poorest countries.
From 1980-1996, the population of
poor Nigerians increased four folds in absolute terms. The percentage of the
core poor increased from 62% in 1980 to 93% in 1996 whereas the moderately poor
only rose from 28.9% in 1992 to 36.3% in 1996 (FOS, 1999). The analysis of the
depth and severity of poverty in Nigeria showed that the urban poor / rural
areas were the most affected. Several reasons accounted for the situation viz;
large concentration of the populace in the urban slum areas,
years of neglect of the urban slum areas in terms of infrastructural
development and lack of adequate information
on the way government is being run.
The CBN/World Bank study on
poverty Assessment and Alleviation in Nigeria (1999) attested to the fact that
the living and environmental conditions of those living in the urban slum areas
have worsened. Urban poverty is also on the increase in the country. This has
been attributed to the under provision of facilities and amenities which are
already inadequate to match the growing demand of the urban populace as well as
the rural-urban movement which has caused serious pressure on the existing
Concern about the problems as
well as efforts made to eradicate or at least reduce them cannot be said to be
new. While major reductions in poverty level have been made in developed
countries, developing countries, Nigeria inclusive, have been battling with
poverty, from one poverty alleviation programme to another eradication
programme, but all to no avail.
The concern over increasing
poverty levels in Nigeria and the need for its eradication as a means of
improving the standard of living of the people has led to the conceptualization
and implementation of various targeted or non-targeted poverty eradication and
alleviation-programmes. Both the Nigerian government and donor agencies have
been active in efforts in analyzing and finding solutions to the increase of
poverty level. Government programmes and agencies designed to make impact on
Directorate of Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure (D.F.F.R.I).
b. The National Directorate of Employment (NDE)
c. The establishment of the Peoples Bank of Nigeria in 1989.
d. The Better Life Programme (BLP)
e. The Family Support Programme (FSP)
f. The Agricultural Development Programme (ADP)
g. National Agricultural Land Development Authority (NALDA).
Nomadic and Adult Education Programme established in 1986
Development Goals (MDG)
And most recently, with the
return of democracy on May 29, 1999 the Federal Government embarked on poverty
alleviation programme specifically, the government put up the National Poverty
Eradication Programme (NAPEP) in the year 2000 which took off in 2001. It was
aimed at eradicating absolute poverty and it consist of four schemes namely;
Empowerment Scheme, Rural Infrastructures and Development Scheme
b. Social Welfare Services Scheme
c. Rural Resources Development and
d. Conservation Scheme.
To implement these programmes,
the government placed emphasis on complementation, collaboration and
coordination between the various tiers of government on the one hand and
between government, Donor/Agencies, non-governmental organizations and local
communities on the other. A multi-agency implementation structure with
coordination, monitoring and evaluating organ was introduced in order to ensure
cost effective delivery target with optimal social benefit. Particularly this
programme, NAPEP is being implemented in Nigeria till date. The questions
arising from the implementation of NAPEP include:
a. Is poverty eradicating programme appropriate for Nigeria?
has government’s concept of NAPEP affected its success?
c. How have NAPEP’s activities make impact on poverty reduction as a
boost to economic development?
In spite of all the laudable
efforts at addressing poverty, the problem still persist in Nigeria.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
Today, poverty is widely
addressed as a global problem. Poverty affects over four billion people.
To this effect the United Nations
declared 1996 the international year for the eradication of poverty and
1997-2006 a decade of poverty eradication. In pursuance of this target,
government in both developed and developing countries became increasingly aware
of the poverty problem and several development efforts to alleviate poverty
therefore have been embarked upon world-wide.
This study is aimed at finding
the activities of poverty alleviation programmes have made positive impact on
the socio-economic development of Nigeria.
Poverty alleviation programmes negatively affected the socio-economic
development of Nigeria.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY.
Broadly, the objective of this
study is to examine the impact of the Poverty Alleviation Programme on the socio-economic
development of Nigeria. Though this study uses Agege area of Lagos State as a
case study, the conclusions derived shall be used to generalize on its impact
on the whole country. The specific objectives include:
assess whether Poverty Alleviation Programme has achieved its objectives of
poverty eradication in Nigeria.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
To what extent have poverty
alleviation programmes made positive impact on the socio-economic development
How appropriate are some
specific strategies designed to combat poverty while improving the
socio-economic development of Nigerians (slum dwellers)?
1.5 HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY
Alleviation Programme has not made any positive impact on the economic
development of Nigeria.
H1: Poverty Alleviation Programme has made impact positively on the
economic development of Nigeria.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
To the masses this research work
intends to publicise the activities and programmes of poverty alleviation, and
how it has affected the well- being of Nigerians.
To the Government and
Policy-makers, it identifies and reveals the successes and failures, challenges
and prospects of poverty alleviation programme and affords them the opportunity
of designing and implementing a holistic approach, procedures and strategies
and better ways of tackling this hydra- headed menace called, poverty.
Also to the students and fellow
researchers, it reveals the operations and the impact of poverty alleviation
programme on the people. While it serves as an addition to the stock of
knowledge, it also serves as a basis for further research.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study covers the impact of
Poverty Alleviation Programme on the Socio- Economic Development in Nigeria; A
case study of Agege area of Lagos State.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Being a programme that has lasted
for a long time, I had difficulties in assessing materials done in this area.
Also combining this research work with my school work was very demanding.
Financial constraints to a large
extent also affected the way this work may have been carried out.
Finally the secondary data used
in this work cannot be qualitatively guaranteed by me as they were compiled by
different bodies. With regards to the primary data, some respondents may not
return their questionnaires while some may be damaged in the process.
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
a. Poverty: It could be defined
as a situation where ones income is too low to allow the purchase of goods and
service that will satisfy its basic need and when it has no financial resources
kept in the form of accumulated or acquired wealth.
b. Poverty Line: It is defined as the
money cost of a given person at a given time and place of a reference level of
welfare. The people who do not maintain this level is called the poor and those
who do are not.
c. Poverty level: It is used to denote
those living below the poverty line.
d. Respondents: These are people whom the
research questionnaires were given to for responses.