project critically discusses and evaluates the impact of advertising on sales
performance. It gives insight to what sales performance is and also shows the
relationship between the two variables that is, advertising and sales
project is exhaustive on what advertising, sales performance and target market
also x-rays the market to enable the reader appreciate the concept of
advertising on sales.
historical background of Nigerian Bottling Company is in chapter one and
chapter two contains the literature review, which further gives insight to what
study was carried out, the method used in collecting data/information were
spelt out in chapter three.
result which is data analysis is found in chapter four. Lastly, five contain
clearly the conclusions and recommendation and further studies suggestions.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Content vi
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 4
1.3 Purpose of the Study 5
1.4 Significance of the study 6
1.5 Research Questions 6
1.6 Research hypotheses 7
1.7 Scope of the study 8
1.8 Limitation of the study 8
1.9 Definition of Terms 9
1.10 History Background of the Company 11
Historical Perspective of Advertising 14
2.2 Advertising Definitions 15
2.3 Types of Advertising 17
2.4 Setting the Advertising Objective 19
2.5 Advertising Strategies Model 21
Of Advertising 22
Agency and Advertising Relationship 24
2.8 Advertising Media 27
and the Critics. 32
2.10 Roles of Advertising 33
2.11 Importance of Advertising 38
2.12 Characteristics of Advertising 38
2.13 Evaluation of Advertising 39
2.14 The Relationship between Sales and Advertising 42
3.1 Research Design 47
3.2 Population of the Study 47
3.3 Sample Size and Sampling Procedure 48
3.4 Data Collection Instrument 49
3.5 The Study Instrument 50
3.6 Data Analysis Method 50
3.7 Administration of the Data Collection Instrument51
3.8 Re–Statement of the Research Question and
3.9 Characteristics of the Study 54
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction 55
4.2 Analysis of Data According To Respondent
4.3 Analysis of Questionnaire According to
4.4 Test of Hypothesis 77
OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of Findings 86
5.2 Conclusion 87
5.3 Recommendation 88
5.4 Limitation and Suggestions Further
OF THE STUDY
actual existence of a product does not translate to consumer satisfaction when
there is lack of awareness. The awareness is filled by advertising. In
marketing, the basic fact is that a product does not sell itself. A product
that is designed to meet buyers’ needs cannot be successful even at an
affordable price without adequate information which can only be provided by
word “Advertising” can be defined as any paid form of non personal presentation
of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor or sponsors (Philip
Kotler, 2001). Advertising might have been used by different people in
different thing. To a marketer, according to Telser L.G. (2003), it is used to
sell products. The advertising technicians see it as aid to communication, this
was why Ogivy (1963) referred to as father of advertising said “I do not regard
advertising as an entertainment or any art form but a medium of information”.
terms, advertising were used as a term to describe an important part of promotion
mix. When the right product as the optimum price is available in all the right
places through the most effective distribution channel, there tends to be a
people who want to buy the product have to be informed about it prospective
buyers must learn about the products distinctive want satisfying characters and
availability. May authors have defined advertising in various forms, each
presently his/her own understanding of the subject. However, all are saying
same things in different ways. Advertising is very important in a soft drinks
industry because the market is very large and highly competitive in nature.
effective advertising creates awareness, generate favourable attitude and
performance in the midst of consumers towards a product and the purchase an
advert must be sent, received and interpreted before it can be acted upon by
the target market. Critics are of the opinion that advertising deceive people
especially with the use of adjectives such as better and best. Critics also
argue that check dico for correctness are dishonest in that their advertisement
carries are false claims. It becomes imperative to ask at this point what the
impact of advertising is on an organization sales turnover.
has become a vital tool in creating brand equity, increasing the sales volume
of an organization. It should be noted that authorities in the likes of Kotler
J.P. (2006) and Cole A.A (1997) described and sees marketing as the
identification of human needs and wants and subsequently how needs could be
Doghuje (1988), formal managing director Linitas as (Nigerian’s pioneer
Perspective) said “advertising is a marketing tool whose sales aim is to build
preferences for advantage brands or services. Jefkins (1982) in his book
defined advertising as “the means of marketing known in order to buy, sell
goods or services”. It is important to stress one part of this definition i.e.
“in order to sell”. Some people try to distinguish between informative and
persuasive advertising but in fact, there are simply two facts of this
the advertiser’s point of view, there is little to be gained by informing if he
cannot persuade and try to persuade without informing, this is epitome of bad
advertising. The Advertising Practioneers Council of Nigeria (APCON)
established by decree 55 of 1995, which determines who the advertising practioners
in Nigeria are and what standards of knowledge and skill are to be attained by
person, seeking to become registered as members of the advertising profession
in Nigeria among its numerous objectives defined advertising to be a form of
communication through media about products, service or ideas paid for by an
says “It is consist of media messages paid for and signed by a firm or
institution that wishes to increase the probability that those reached by these
messages will behave, satisfied or provided”.
marketing concept is a business philosophy which states that the customer, want
satisfaction is the economic and social justification of the company’s
popular slogan that “if you do say you are here, nobody will know you are
there” must be strictly in all form adhere to the soft drinks industries
because today have choices and they are better informed and organized as to
company taste, quality, quantity. Therefore, any soft drink industry that is
business conscious must give advertising a serious attention as a way to
increase the sales volume of the organization.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
study attempts to expose the following problems as stated in the term of
Whether or not advertising plays an
important role in achieving the sales turnover in quantity and money?
Do customers actually patronize the
company base on their advertisement?
To what extent will be the turnovers
vary with different levels of advertising her expenditure?
Whether or not the media used by the
company in carrying out its advertising are ineffective?
How does advertisement influence the
belief and attitude of the people?
1.3 THE PURPOSE OF STUDY
purpose of this study therefore is to be specific and how it carries out its
advertising activities. That is, evaluate the company in such a way as to:
To determine the advertising elements
that are commonly used in soft drink industry.
To highlight the correlation between the
amounts expended on advertising activities and profits.
To identify more effective advertising
To appraise the extent of the influence
of advertising on the consumer’s buying behaviours.
To also know the impact of advertising
on the company’s turnover at a specific point in time.
To also help management to know the best
form of advertising for the company’s product.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
significance of the study is generally to identity the impact of advertising on
organization turnover. The study will be of immense benefits to the management
of the Nigeria Bottling Company and any individual or group of persons who
might like to carry out research on the same topic or related topic in future.
It will also help the consumer in marketing their purchase decision readers will
be more enlightened on why consumers are loyal to their preference.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
question below where provided with answers by the researcher from the responses
from the company (Nigeria Bottling Company Plc) and the customers:
What are the significance of advertising
What is the relationship between
advertising and the company’s sales turnover?
To what extent will advertising
influence the company turnover?
Has advertising achieved its goals on
company’s turnover for the past five (5) years?
What are the constraints inhabiting the
level of advertising expenditure in your firm?
Does the company adopt the right media
in carrying out its advertising campaign?
Are the advertising strategies adopted
by the company having a positive effect on the company’s turnover?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
HO: Advertising does not have impact on company’s
H1: Advertising has impact
on company’s turnover.
HO: Turnover does not vary under different levels
H1: Turnover varies under different levels of
HO: The choice of the right the media does not
determine the company’s turnover.
H1: The choice of the right the media determines
the company’s turnover.
HO: The choice of advertising media does not name
effect on the overall sucers.
HO: The choice of advertising media name effect
on the overall sucers.
OF THE STUDY
The promotional activities of marketing
department of Nigeria Bottling Company Plc.
The advertising media used by the
The impact of advertising of Nigeria
Bottling Company and sales volume.
The type of advertising method use by
The targeted audience of the advertising
made by the company.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
research study is directed and narrowed to the impact of advertising on sales
turnover in the soft drink industry and also advertising can be related to
building of company’s image and the introduction of company’s product. However,
the study will why cover Nigeria Bottling Company because of the following
The cost of conducting the research and
the time constraints in contacting the respondents.
Inaccessibility of some executive
concern or where you find their inability to provide adequate answers.
Uncooperative of one respondent by not
filling the questionnaires as required.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
MARKET: The target market refers to individuals or a
particular segment of people, organizations who are in need of particular
VOLUME: This refers to sales realized by an individual or organization
expressed quantitative physical or volume terms over a specified period of
time, usually one fiscal year.
MEDIA: This is the channel or medium through which
information about a product is passes to the target market. E.g. includes
television and radio (electronic media), newspapers, magazines and journals
This refers to the identified sponsor i.e. individuals or organizations who
effect the payment of advertising.
It is define as any form of non personal presentation of goods, services or
ideas by an identified sponsor.
MEDIA: Electronic media consists of both radio and
television, they are basically electronized to pass out information i.e.
MEDIA: The print media consists of newspapers, magazines
and journals on printing of achievements in the dailies.
Turnover also means sales revenue. The amount of money taken by a business in a
particular period of time.
Product can be defined as a good, idea, method, information, object or service
that is the end result of a process and serves to be offered to the market
place to satisfy wants.
Marketing is defined as the management process which identifies, anticipates
and supplies customer requirements efficiently and effectively.
1.10 HISTORY BACKGROUND OF THE COMPANY
was first made on the 8th of May, 1816 by Dr. John Styln Penberto, a
pharmacist in his home, Atlanta Geogia USA. The name coca-cola was given
by Frank M. Robbinson, Dr. Perberton’s partner and book-keeper. He also
designed the flowing script that distinguished the famous trademark. Coca-cola
content remain a secret as the have been for over 100 years. The formula known
as merchandize 7x is kept in a special security vault in a bank in the United State.
People got to know about coca-cola through Dr. Penberton’s advertising and
marketing activities. Coca-cola came to Nigeria
in 1953 when the Nigeria Bottling company opened it’s first plant in Lagos
and now coca-cola has 16 plants in Nigeria, Nigerians drinks about 7,000,000
bottles of coke everyday.
Bottling Company Plc makes other drinks like Fanta Orange, Ginger Ale, Fanta
Soda, Fanta Chapman, Sprite, Bitter Lemon, Schweppes, Soda Tonic, Five Alive,
Tonic and Eva Table Water.
Bottling Company Plc has helped develop other industries such as Delta Glass
Company which produces soft drinks bottles, crowns, Benin Plastic Company which
makes plastic cases for bottles; these are sources of employment for many
NBC employs thousands of Nigerians.
NBC has several dealers for its product
all over Nigeria,
all of whom are called once a week.
NBC is the largest manufacturer of
carbon dioxide (Co2) gas delivery used for making soft drinks.
NBC has the largest privately owned
fleets of delivery trucks, pick up’s and cars in Nigeria all working to bring
coca-cola to you.
Bottling Company Plc always puts something back into the society as a reward
for patronizing its product mainly through philanthropic activities. For
example, the company is a leader in the crusade for environmental protection.
It is also a major sponsor of sporting activities and events. NBC is conscious
if its social responsibilities, for this reason, it sponsors activities such
where it sponsored the national team and local competitions.
tennis, the Nigeria
activities channel towards helping the disabled and
communal events and project.
ORGANOGRAM OF MARKETING
DEPARTMENT OF NIGERIA
BOTTLING COMPANY PLC
DIRECTOR OF MARKETING
MARKETING DISTRIBUTION SALES
MANAGER MANAGER MANAGER
PLANT SALES ASSISTANT ROUTE
MANAGER DISTRIBUTION MANAGER
ASSISTANT SUPERVISORS SUPERVISORS