TABLE OF CONTENTS
Of The Problem
Of The Study:
And Delimitation Of The Study
Limitation Of The
Of The Study
Definition Of Terms
2.1 Supportive resources
2.2 Components of school supportive resources
2.4 The Importance of School Supportive
resources as perceived by teachers
2.5 The Importance of school supportive
resources as perceived by students
2.6 Resourcing for effective school
2.7 Supportive resources and effective
teaching and learning
2.8 Two theories of teaching and learning
2.9 Theory of Resource Management
2.11 Influence of Supportive resources
2.12 Likely Resources Improvement for Internal
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
3.4 Research Instrument
3.5 Validity of Instrument
3.6 Reliability of Instrument
3.7 Procedure for Data Collection
Procedure for Data Analysis
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
B: Research Questions
4.4 Hypothesis Testing
DISCUSSION, SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
5.2 Discussion of Findings
Just the way a bird cannot fly without
feathers, an academic establishment cannot thrive satisfactorily if it is not
imbued with the necessary facilities that are required to fortify the human
efforts of the teaches and the academic staff as a whole.
The constant desire of education
stakeholders to achieve optimum efficiency in their profession has been the
backbone of several works of psychological, philosophical, sociological,
economic and even architectural research and propositions.
Several needs are required for the
attainment of genuine proficiency in the teaching-learning activities of a
school, none of which can be neglected. Some of these needs are qualified
personnel, financial resources, adequate school buildings, academic equipment,
IT facilities and health facilities just to mention a few. This research,
however, focuses on the physical rather than the human aspects of
teaching-learning advancement regarded as school supportive resources.
The availability and placement of
supportive resources in a school determines how much productivity teachers
could derive from their expertise and , consequently, how much learners can
gain by interacting with their teachers and from their own personal learning
Kolb (1995) stated that learning styles
can be ranked along a continuum ranging from :
experience(being involved in a new experience), through
observation (watching others or developing observations through our own
conceptualization (creating theories to explain observations)
experimentation (using theories to solve problems and make decisions).
Litzinger and Osif (2004) called these
different types of learners accommodators,
divergers, convergers, and assimilators
according to Kolb’s classification above.
Concerning individual differences in the
area of intelligence, Gardner (2005) theorized that people do not have one
general intelligence, but are characterized by a range of intelligences
instead. So rather than being globally
intelligent, one may be particularly strong in certain areas, for example
mathematics, while someone else may be particularly strong in another area, for
example, physical sports. He distinguishes seven main types of intelligence,
We need to take into account the different
learning styles and the different intelligence patterns of learners and the way
teachers should approach and care for these differences. Furthermore, we need
to underline how the school management should provide for these differences.
These are important if teachers are to provide education that is unbiased,
diversified and personalized.
of the problem
According to Adeboyeje (2000) and Emeratom
(2004), school facilities are the physical and spatial enablers of teaching and
learning which will increase the production of results. School facilities serve
as pillars of support for effective teaching and learning. Oyesola (2000) sees
school facilities to include permanent and semi-permanent structures such as
machinery, laboratory equipment, the blackboard, teacher’s tools and other
equipment as well as consumables.
Good quality and standard of school
depends largely on the provision,adequacy,utilization and management of
educational facilities. Akinsolu (2004) asserted that educational curriculum
cannot be sound and well operated with poor and badly managed school
facilities. From all indications, school facilities are physical resources that
facilitate effective teaching and learning. They include blocks of classrooms,
laboratories, workshops, libraries, equipment, consumables, electricity, water,
visual and audio-visual aids, tables, chairs, playground, storage space and
According to Dharmadasa (2007), the
characteristics of teaching-learning efficiency include the following:
creates learning environments where students are active participants as
individuals and as members of collaborative groups.
encourages students to accept responsibility for their own learning and
accommodates and diverse learning needs of all students.
motivates students and nurtures their desire to learn in a safe, healthy and
supportive environment which develops compassion and mutual respect.
cultivates cross-cultural understanding and the value of diversity.
displays effective and efficient classroom management which includes classroom routines that
promote comfort,order and appropriate student behaviours.
provides student equitable access to technology, space, tools and time.
effectively allocates time for students to engage in hands-on experiences,
discuss and process content and make meaningful connections.
designs lessons that allow students to participate in empowering activities in
which they understand that learning is a process and mistakes are a natural
part of learning.
Based on the foregoing, the problem of
this study is as follows:
It appears that public secondary schools
in Nigeria are not adequately equipped with the necessary facilities that are
required to maximize teaching and learning. Over the years, this has led to the
churning out of half-baked graduates from these secondary schools; graduates
who are not adequately prepared for the academic demands of tertiary
School supportive resources are needed to
these students in such a way that they are able to compete favourably with
their counterparts in standard private schools and by extension, the developed
countries of the world.
of the study:
This research is aimed at achieving the
explore the importance of school supportive resources to the efficiency of
teaching and learning in public secondary schools.
determine the extent to which school supportive resources aid in achieving
determine the availability of school supportive resources in public secondary
determine how much productivity is derived from the available supportive
resources in relation to teaching and learning in public secondary schools.
school supportive resources significantly influenceacademic achievement in
public secondary schools?
supportive resources effectively used to aid teaching and learning in public
school supportive resources significantly influence students’ school
school supportive resources significantly affect teacher retention in
To achieve the objective of the study, the
following hypotheses are formulated:
H0 – School facilities will not
significantly influence the level of academic achievement in public secondary schools.
H1 – School facilities will
significantly influence the level of academic achievement in public secondary
H0 – Supportive resources are
not effectively used to aid learning in public secondary schools.
H1 – Supportive resources are
effectively used to aid teaching and learning in public secondary schools.
H0 - School supportive
resources will not significantly influence students’ school attendance.
H1– School supportive resources
will significantly influence students’ school attendance.
- School supportive resources will not significantly influence
teacher retention in schools
H1 – School supportive
resources will significantly influence teacher retention in schools
andg delimitation of the study
Since no single research can validly cover
all areas of the topic, the researcher aims that the thrust of this project
will be limited to the scope of the relationship between school supportive resources and
teaching-learning efficiency. The study will focus primarily on Public
Secondary Schools in District (IV) Area of Lagos State from where the Public
secondary schools of this study will be drawn to enable the researcher carry
out an extensive investigation on this subject.
1.16 Limitation of
The researcher is limited by time
constraints. Since the researcher’s time needs to be divided between this study
and a bulk of academic exercise.
The researcher is also constrained by
unavailability of funds required for an extensive research.
of the study
research will serve to further open the eyes of the administrators of Public
Schools in Lagos State to the importance of school supportive resources and why
they should strive for their provision. It will reveal to them what they are
missing in form of full achievement of educational goals, complete teaching
fulfilment for their learners in cases of insufficiency or under-utilization of
these supportive resources.
research will also motivate teachers to try to identify the individual and
peculiar educational needs of each of their students and to try to make efforts
to fulfil them using the necessary facilities.
this research will help the Lagos State Government and Ministry of Education to
know the viability and real level of development of their Secondary schools
from the perspective of School Supportive resources.
Definition of Terms
Supportive resources: Permanent
and semi-permanent structures such as machinery, laboratory equipment, the
blackboard or marker board, teacher’s tools and other equipment as well as
A constant stream of
professional decisions made before, during and after interaction with the
student; decisions which, when implemented, increase the probability of
Changes in a pupil’s
behaviour which takes place as a result of being engaged in an educational
approaches to, or ways of learning
5. Efficiency: Ability to teach or learn well, without
wasting time or resources.
6. Effectiveness: Ability to produce the intended result
These are secondary schools mandated for, or offered to all children by the
government, whether national, regional or local, provided by an institution of
civil government, and paid for, in whole or in part, by public funding from
8. Intelligence: Ability to understand complex ideas, to
adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in
various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought.