research work was undertaken to investigate the application of marketing in
politics with the focus on PDP and APC. It is the contention of this study that
marketing plays a vital role in politics. The research carefully identifies how
politicians were able to carry their political activities to the grass-root
level of various communities with the aid of market segmentation. The
researcher also went further to examine why the parties were successful in some
area. The data of this study were collected through questionnaire and oral
interview, where the questionnaire forms the major method of data collection.
The simple random method was used to select the respondents of the study. Based
on the above findings, the following recommendations were made for implementation.
Politicians should carry out their campaign exercise to the grass root of every
community with the aid of political market segmentation.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
of Contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Research Problem 4
Purpose/Objectives of the Study 5
Central Research Questions 5
Formulation of Hypothesis 6
Scope of the Study 6
Significance of the Study 7
Limitation of the Study 8
Operational Definition of Terms 9
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Definition of Marketing 11
Marketing in Non-Business Organization 12
Nature and Scope of Non-Business
What is Political Marketing 16
Marketing Segmentation in Politics 18
Communication and Distribution
Political Product Differentiation 27
Summary of the Chapter 29
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design 31
Population of the Study 31
Sample/Sampling Procedure 31
Method of Data Collection 31
Validity of Instrument Used 34
Method of Data Analysis 34
Cut Off Point/Decision Rule 35
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND
ANALYSIS OF DATA
Presentation of Data 36
Data Analysis 36
Discussion of Findings/Hypothesis
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION
Limitation of the Study 47
Summary of Findings 47
Suggestion for Further Research 49
1.1 Background to the Study
For those who have real experience of
politics, it is a service of exciting and interesting adventures. And the
ultimate aim of political marketing is the attainment of power. In Nigeria
politics is a game of survival of the fittest.
Political marketing covers a wide
spectrum marketing which is the identification anticipation and satisfaction of
customer’s requirement in a profit manner is the peg on which politics
revolves; it is purely non-business organization which is not out for the
purpose of profit maximization.
In Nigeria political marketing has been
a controversial subject for the past decades. This has become one of the
challenges facing marketing in developing countries. Political marketers
believed that Nigeria is not ripe enough for this type of game. In buttressing
their argument, they pointed out that in Nigeria, the number of educated
persons politically are to infinite and that politics will not be successful.
According to such critics marketing
philosophy is very sophisticated and two abstract to be appreciated in a
developing economy. Also a developing economy being a country of poor
technology, production is more of a problem of marketing. From the campaign of
1979, 1983 and 1999, it has been proved beyond reasonable doubt that political
marketing has woken from deep slumber in Nigeria in 1979 and 1983 election.
Promotional mix was used by different political parties to bring their
philosophy to grass root level of every community. During the campaign
exercise, NPN and UPN, which were in forefront took the advantage of good
market segmentation to beat their political contestants to the third fourth and
fifth positions. After many years of military rule during which individual freedom
democracy and rule of law were severally and fundamentally damaged the
challenges facing the nation as it advances into 21st century are
the recreation of civil political institution. The reconciliation of our
various peoples, the relenting of the spirit of unity and brotherhood in the
nation and revitalizations of the powers of the people to build a prosperous
As a matter of fact APC was not left out
in marketing her manifestos known to the people of Nigeria. The party pinned
herself to five cardinal point programmes and these programmes were:
Free education at primary school
Qualitative medical care at subsidized
Qualitative education at secondary
Computerizing of tertiary institution
Often, the philosophies of these
political parties are just propaganda and paper work in most case contradict
the real control measure of the party when in government. Therefore political
marketing is the type in which the weight of politics rest.
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
Political marketing campaign is like
diplomacy. As most diplomat said it you don’t have either the facts or law on
your self then simply shout what Obasanjo’s political opponents were trying to
do when to shout for this contribution to democracy generally and in education
particularly were manifested beyond dispute.
Political marketing is get tap root in
Nigeria some of the politicians have little or no sound education which will
bring them to the stage of appreciation and implementing marketing techniques
We have come to an era where political
marketing it of paramount important to politicians.
In this study, it is necessary to bring
out the activities of each of the political party and how with the aid of
marketing segmentation, it was able to carry out the activities to the grass
root lf the community.
We are equally out to figure out the
area where these activities were successful and what actually contributed to
the failure of some of the political parties in some area.
1.3 Purpose/Objectives of the Study
In introduction, we look at political
marketing as the 3 peg which it revolves.
To identify marketing activities in
To look at the significance of marketing
Another objective of this research is to
Research the other methods than
1.4 Central Research Questions
The purpose of this study is to examine:
Why political marketing is important to
politicians in Nigeria
To know why politicians use thugs and violence
as means to make voters to vote for them and
That why we think marketing strategies
are relevant in the political scene.
1.5 Formulation of Hypothesis
Hypothesis in its simplest form is a
guess, it is an proven preposition that tentatively explains certain facts of
Hypothesis is a statement of assumption
about the nature of the world. The decision to carryout this research is to
show certain facts that will serve as a yardstick towards the realization of
the following expectation.
Ho: Political marketing is
not of importance to politicians in Nigeria.
Hi: Political marketing is
of importance to politicians in Nigeria.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This research work embraces all the 36
States in Nigeria.
Because of the short time and space with
which to complete and submit these research work and also because of
geographical location of each of the State we have to divide Nigeria into six
market segments, these six market segments are:
North South Zones which comprises of the
core North, like Kano and Kaduna etc.
North Central zones which comprise the
middle belt states like Niger and Kogi State.
North East zones which comprise of State
like Maiduguri and Zamfara States.
South West zones which comprises of the
Niger-Delta State, like Delta and Edo State.
South East zone which comprises of the
Igbos such as Imo, Anambra and Enugu State.
South-South zone which comprises of the
For the purpose of market segmentation,
each of the zones is taken as a distinct market from the other.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The significance of this study cannot be
It will enable the politicians to
identify and use marketing techniques in politics instead of tugged or violence
means to influence the electorate.
It will enlighten marketing students to
know that marketing is not restricted to business organization alone for ever.
This study will serve as reference
material to other researchers who may want to make further research the area
It can be a course of study in our
higher institution as we have political science in order to us to sanitize the
political environment of the society from violence.
For the markets, it will bring about
employment and your service will be needed to give marketing system methods or
strategies for the attainment of the party political goals.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
This research work will be limited to
political marketing in Nigeria as well as the assessment.
Some of the questionnaires prepared and
distributed to respondents were not all returned so that a complete analysis of
the respondents be presented.
Finally, a full analysis and access to
essential documents articles and soon were not made available to the
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
to Kotler in his book marketing management. the millennium edition (2007).
Marketing is a social process by which
individuals and groups obtain what they need and what though exchange process.
The American Marketing Association
defines marketing as the process of planning and executing the conception,
paring production and distribution of ideas goods and services to create
exchange that satisfy individual and organization goals. Dictionary of
Marketing Terms (1992).
Nnoli (2000) in depriving politics has this to say politics is about power
influence interest and value. It is refers to all these activities which are
directly or indirectly associated with the seizure of state power the
consolidation of state power and use of state power.
Marketing: Orsaah (2002) in his article on the emergence of
political marketing in Nigeria sees functions and the use of marketing system
methods or strategies for attainment of political goals.
He continues that specifically political
marketing is the use of marketing techniques in politics to influence the
voting (buying) decision of the electorate (consume).
is a person or individual seeking political office before and during primaries
is a person or individual nominated after the conduct of primaries to represent
a particular political party in the election proper (Orianwote, 2000).
is defined as a carefully planned and coordinated series of promotional effort
build around a candidate.