The study assessed
the perceived effects of solid waste disposal techniques on health status of
residents in Igando Local Government Area. Four (4) Local Communities
Development Area Ifeoluwa, Banjo,
Feyintola and Oduduwa The descriptive research method was used in
carrying out the study. The population for the study was people within the age
bracket between 18-50 and above (male and female) in Igando Local Government
Area of Lagos state which constitutes a total number of 4,640. The sample size
comprised 464 individuals within the age bracket between 18-50 and above who
reside in four communities in Igando. Data collection was done with a 20 item
validated questionnaire .Descriptive survey method was used for the study. Data
analysis was done using the descriptive statistics of percentages, frequency table,
mean standard deviation and pearson product moment correlation. The result
shows that improper solid waste disposal techniques can lead to outbreak of
diseases and other hazards, respondents with grand mean of3.1940 within the age
range of 18-50years and above agreed that proper management of solid waste can
promote healthy living. This statistics shows that majority of the residents of
Igando Local Government Area are fully aware about the consequences of
indiscrimate waste disposal. The vast majority of the respondents with grand
means 2.7823 agreed that open dump method of solid waste disposal is not
environmental friendly which implies that open dump can lead to Land, water,
and air pollution with its negative impacts on the health of the residents. In
conclusion, people attitude to waste management can be improved upon if the
government, waste management agencies in the area can embark on periodic
campign and other forms of sensitization programs. More also all hands must be
on deck for proper waste management in the interest of members of the public.
recommendations are as follows;
should be enacted
enlightenment program should be embark upon.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
of contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the study 1
Statement of the Problem 5
Research Questions 5
Research Hypotheses 6
Purpose of the Study 7
Significance of Study 7
Delimitation of the Study 8
Limitation of the Study 8
Definition of Terms 9
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Concept of Solid Waste Disposal 12
Waste management Policies and Regulation 17
Types of Solid Waste Disposal 19
Classification of Solid Waste Disposal 21
Method of Solid Waste Disposal 24
Factors Affecting Solid Waste Disposal 39
Health and Environmental Implication of Solid
Waste Disposal 41
Challenges of Solid Waste Disposal 42
Indiscriminate Solid Waste Disposal. 46
Roles of stakeholders 48
Solution to the Problems of Solid Waste
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH
Research Method 56
Population of the Study 56
Sample and Sampling Techniques 56
Research Instrument 56
Validity of Instrument 57
Reliability of Instrument 57
Procedure for Data Collection 58
Procedure for Data Analysis 58
Pilot Study 58
CHAPTER FOUR : DATA PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF
Analysis of the demographic variables of the
on Perceived Effects of Solid Waste Disposal Techniques on 64
Status of Residents in Igando, Lagos State.
Hypotheses Testing 72
FIVE: SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND
waste disposal is both urban and rural problem. Every person is a potential
generator of waste and this is a contributor to this problem. To generate waste
is one thing, the type of waste generated is another and also the way the
generated waste is managed or disposed of is quite a different issue. It has
more often than not turned out that the rate at which solid waste is generated
is far higher than the capacity to responsibly manage this waste. Waste is
generated by, and from different sectors, domestic, commercial, industry and
others and in many instances; the waste management responsibility has been left
to the government or administrative authorities. There is growing consensus
that the immediate stakeholders in the issue of solid waste (the generators of
waste), in this case the authorities is dealing with this problem that has
far-reaching environmental and human health effects.
waste refers to municipal waste from domestic, commercial, institutions and
industrial sources but excluding excreta, except when it mixed with solid
waste. It is however necessary to note that in developing countries many a
times it becomes difficult or even impractical to put a line between excreta
and solid waste. In many instances, solid waste mixed with excreta is
potentially dangerous to human and animals’ health. Levine & Coed (2004).
(2008) stated that waste generation increases not only because people multiply
and hence the space available to each person becomes smaller, but also because
the demand per person are continually increasing so that each person throws
away more year by year. If the world’s population were evenly distributed over
the earth surface most of these wastes could probably remain unnoticed and
perhaps harmless. But as city population increases, their residues also
increases and concentrate around them.
waste disposal plays a multiple role in maintaining health and social stability
and in preserving the values of a decent family life, community, State even the
nation as a whole, This is because it constitute the physical environment in
which society’s basic units develops. The improvement represents a concrete and
visible rise in the general level of living conditions in a given location.
(2008) defined wastes as rubbish or materials that are not needed and are
economically unusable without further processing. It may be in liquid, gas, or
solid from and originated from a wide range of human operations, such as
industry, commerce, transport, agriculture, medicine, and domestic activities.
(2006) defined waste as something which the owners no longer want at a specific
time. Solid wastes can be generated from domestic, industrial, commercial and
agricultural activities as long as there are human activities going on waste
must be generated. However, poor solid waste disposal has been a major public
health issues affecting the health quality of life of man and its
environment. In most African countries
where their level of hygiene is low, accumulation of solid waste has created
some health problems which are also the primary cause of epidemic resulting in
severe deterioration of their health and environment.
Brook, (1999) the term solid waste may be used
to refer to municipal waste and can be categorized in seven groups. They
include residential (or house hold or domestic waste). Commercial,
institutional, street sweeping, construction and demolition, sanitation and
industrial wastes. While municipal solid waste refers to solid wastes from
houses, streets and public places, shops, offices, and hospitals, which are
very often, the responsibility of municipal or other governmental authorities,
solid waste from industrial processes, are generally not considered
“Municipal”. However, it should be taken into account when dealing with solid
waste as they often end up in the municipal solid waste.
waste can also be refers as municipal waste which can be categorized into seven
which include: residential, (household or domestic) commercial institutional,
street sweeping construction and demolition, sanitation and industrial wastes.
While municipal solid waste refers to solid waste generated from houses, streets
and public places such as offices and hospitals . Rush Brook,( 1999).
Osinowo, (2003) stated that it is no longer news that Lagos
State is over populated with about 17 million inhabitants; and houses about 50%
of industries in Nigeria. Thus, waste is generated much more than any other
state in the federation. Considering the public health implications varying
from transmission of communicable diseases such as yellow fever, diarrhea,
cholera with malaria accounting for 25% child mortality rate in Nigeria,
continuous increase in indiscriminate dumping of waste has however led to
spreading of vector their and borne vehicle diseases like malaria and cholera.
It has also lead to offensive odour contamination of underground water, loss of
aesthetic value of the environment, and flooding as a result of accumulated
wastes blocking the high ways and drainage.
responsibility for solid waste management is placed on the shoulder of the
ministry of environment (MOE), Sanitation Department of Local Government and
Government Agency in particular Lagos State Waste Management Authority (LAWMA).
It is noted that, solid waste disposal in Igando is being complicated on daily
basis due to population growth and increase in the rate of waste being
generated by the populace, which necessitates this research work.
of the Problem
waste disposal has been a major problem to mankind; indiscriminate waste
disposal has posed major threat to human health and ecosystem. Terrestrial and
aquatic lives are exposed to various health hazards due to failure of mankind
to go extra mile in waste management science.
inherent problems of waste generation, collection and disposal includes
outbreak of epidemic environmental pollution and flood which often occurred due
to persistent dumping of personal, industrial and domestic waste into the
drainage. It is noted with dismay that indiscriminate disposal of solid waste
on the highway is the causes of road accident. The prevalence of malaria and
other vector and vehicle borne diseases are traceable to failure on the part of
both the government and the community to instill right attitude toward waste
following research questions are proposed for the study:
Will open dump techniques on health status
affect solid waste disposal in Igando?
Will incineration techniques on health
status affect solid waste disposal in Igando?
Will landfill techniques on health status
affect solid waste disposal in Igando?
Will recycling techniques on health status
affect solid waste disposal in Igando?
following hypotheses constituted the
basic assumptions for the study:
dump techniques on health status will not significantly affect solid waste
disposal in Igando.
2. Incineration techniques on health status will
not significantly affect solid waste disposal in Igando.
3. Landfill techniques on health status will not
significantly affect solid waste disposal in Igando.
techniques on health status will not significantly affect waste disposal in
Purpose of the Study
purpose of this study is to:
Identify challenges of solid waste
disposal in Igando.
Establish whether there are plans in place
by the waste collector, to improve residents participation for better solid
waste disposal in Igando,
Enumerate the roles of stakeholders.
Suggest and evaluate residents initiatives
of solving the problem of effect of solid waste disposal in
Identify the present disposal approaches and
methods practiced in Igando.
study would be useful to the Lagos State Government as the researcher had laid
emphasis on challenges to an effective solid waste disposal system in Lagos.
The study would also be useful to the community, during the process of educating them on the proper way of disposing solid waste. It
may further put every stakeholder on their toes.
of the Study
study would be delimited to the following:
Primary stakeholders which includes, residents,
Lagos State Waste Management Authority(LAWMA),
Private Sector Participation ( PSP) operators
Local Community Development Area ( LCDA) .This includes ,Ifeoluwa,
Banjo,Feyintola and Oduduwa
Self developed structured and validated
Four hundred and sixty four (464) members
of the communities
Simple random and purposive sampling
Descriptive statistics of simple
percentage and frequency table
Spearman ranking for testing the
reliability of the instrument.
of the Study
problem be encountered during the conduct of this research is as follow: 1.Problem of administration and retrieval of instrument
from the respondents which prompted the researcher and his assistant to adopt
on the spot questionnaire administration technique for collection.
Challenges on the literacy level of the respondents. The researcher and the
assistants have read in languages which the respondents understood as they indicated their opinion on the question items.
Unwanted materials being produce by man and his environment.
This is defined as group of people living together in a social unit having
common interest, laws and culture.
Is a state of wellness physical and mental not merely the absence of disease or
Abnormal state of health.
Refuse is which the owner no longer wants at specific period of time.
Refuse: are refuse that arises from domestic
This is the process of collection, disposal and transformation of economical
valuable materials from waste which are used for production of new items.
waste: This is waste materials resulting from human
activities that ares useless or unwanted.
Sanitation: This is the activities that deal with keeping and
maintaining clean and tidy vicinity and surrounding.
This is the unusual occurrence of a disease in excess of expectation in a
specific population at a period of time.
Stakeholders: People directly benefiting or affected by
a particular activities.
disease: Organisms that spread diseases such as, person and
Agents that transmit infectious from one person to another.