This project espouses the
motivation as an essential ingredient for enhanced productivity. Quite often,
management is so much concerned with what it can get out of employees in terms
of best job performance; profitability or results. Little attention is paid to
the motivation of employees who are human beings and not machines. This slow
attitude of management in failing to appreciate the value of employees
motivation so that appropriate management techniques can be developed has
resulted in a great wastes of human resources.
This dissatisfaction of
employees are more often than not; reflected in high labour turnover, frequent
complaints, strikes and deterioration in job performance. In order to avoid
employees dissatisfaction management should identify the causes and develop a
package programme to cater for the maintenance motivation needs of staff.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page Ii
Table Of Contents Vii
1.0 Introduction 1
Background Of The
History of Ifako-Ijaye 4
Statement Of Problem 5
Purpose Of The Study 6
Significance Of The
2.0 Review Of
Related Literature – Introduction 11
2.1 Definition Of
2.2 Clearing Up Common Myths About Employee
Principles Of Remember 15
Human Motivation 17
(Individual ) 23
Sources Of Motivation 26
Way A Self Concept
Based Model Of Work
Development Of Self Concept 43
How The Self Concept
Influences Behaviour In
The Impact Of Self
Concept On Motivation Process 48
Implication: Self Concept And
Research Methodology 58
Method Of Data
Method Of Data
Sample Technique 59
Population And Sample
Analysis Of Data 61
Data Analysis 63
Hypothesis Testing 64
Limitation Of The
5.0 Summary Of Finding Recommendation And
Summary Of Finding 85
1.1 Background Of
Motivation is a common word often discussed by people in
any given organisation and it shall be discuss in terms of management and
employees relationship. Basically, management involves planning, organising,
directing, coordinating, budgeting, control etc. (Drunker, 1975 and 1978). The
primary objective of all these responsibilities is the achievement of best
result. Similarly, management cannot achieve its primary objective in the
atmosphere of chaos, unfriendliness and lack of motivation (Humble, 1969:
Akpala, 1991). Motivation entails in very simple terms, encouragement shown in
cash and/or in kind.
Management cannot operate in isolation of employee
employees are human beings and not more tools which are utilized in reckless
manner. In a changing economic world, employee have gone beyond being just
employees, but have take keen interests in the management of organisational
affairs that concern them.
The need to satisfy human wants has led to the study of
motivation an individual basis. The inner state of dis-equilibrium of man is
forcing him to search and choose strategies to satisfy his needs. In the course
of searching and choosing strategies, he processes some abilities which enable
him to direct his performance towards his goals. If the performance satisfies
the employer, a reward is given to the employees. On the century, the employee
will receive punishment, therefore, motivation is the concern of both employer
In organisations, managers in recent times are worried
about the decline in workers productivity. The over increasing external forces
of national and international competitions economic, social, technological and
political situations have compelled mangers to develop and acquired new levels
of organisational efficiency and effectiveness. Having in mind the endless
changes in organisations, the managers that are lealing the race to reach the
goals of the organisations are encouraging the employees to continue the race
by developing ways to stimulate the employee ways to maintain the effective for
work force and ways to develop their skills.
Motivating employees leads the functions of managers in any
organisations to make policies, many managers take the motivation of employees
into consideration in order to get the best out of them. The key to high
productivity, high profitability and high viability of any organisations is
motivation, so it must not be tampered with.
Also, there is a growing realization that traditional
models of motivation do not explain the diversity of behaviour found in
organisational settings. While research and theory building in the areas of
goal setting, reward system, leadership and job design have advanced our
understanding of organisational behaviour, most of this work is built on the
premise that individuals act in ways to maximize the value of exchange with the
organisations. In addition, some researchers have called attention to the role
of dispositions and volitional processes as models of motivation (Kanfer, 1990)
others point out that we have a variety of motivation theories that have no
unifying theme and are not supported well by the research (Locke and Henne,
1986). In an effort to address these issues, some researchers have turned to
self theory as an alternative explanation for organisational behaviour.
Specifically, social identity theory (Stryker, 1980, 1986, Teyfel and Tuner,
1985). Self presentation theory (Beach and Mitchell, 1990). Gergen, 1968,
Schlenker, 1985) and self efficiency theory (Bendura 1982, 1986) are all
fundamentally rotted in the concept of self.
In this research project, I introduce a unifying model of
motivation based on theories of self-concept that have been proposed in the
sociological and psychological literatures. I will begin by reviewing some
traditional theories of motivation, specifically concentrating on their
limitation. Then I will present a comprehensive model that propose the
self-concept as the underlying force that energise, directs and sustains
behaviour across a wide variety of situations. I will also discuss how the
self-concept influences behaviour in organisation and present a typology of
sources of motivation which can be used as a unifying framework based on the
self concept. I will conclude with managerial implications.
Ifako-Ijaye local government was created along with 183
other by the then Head of State late General Sani Abacha on October 1st, 1996.
It was carved out of Agege Local Government with its head quarters at Ifako. It
is inhabited by over 380,000 people according to 2006 census, majority of who
are Yoruba’s. The literacy level of the local government area is about 75% as
most of the local government resident are migrant from different parts of
metropolitan Lagos and the country in general.
Ifako-Ijaye Local government is bounded in the west by
Alimoso, east by Ikeja, south by Agege and the north by Ifo and Adolota (ogun
state) local government respectively.
Generally, motivation encompasses rewards shown in cash
and/ or in kind. It is not an empty promise but a demonstration of reality. The
socio-economic environment influences the need to motivate employees. Employees
are very much interested in their basic need such as food, shelter, clothing
and safety up to the ultimate needs of self esteem and actualization. These
basic needs are satisfied through monetary and or non-monetary considerations.
The prevailing economic situation necessitates that employees real wages have
to be enhanced so that they can exercise effective demand for goods and
services. The absence of motivation can lead to deterioration in
In the past, it was argued that the ineptness of management
was influenced by the theory that employees were unwilling or unable to perform
a good job unless they were coerced or enticed (McFarland, 1976). Nowadays, it
is argued that employees are very much willing to perform their jobs well and
especially when they are given a sustainable high level of motivation.
Generally, the needs system that affects the behaviour of employees in any
organisations can be categorised into two main groups, namely maintenance and
Of The Study
Motivation is lucrative to organisations and employees.
Therefore, the study of this topic will always take our minds to the following
points that are enumerated below:
To let managers known
that supporting employee motivation is a process, not a task.
To make managers
support employee motivation by using organisational systems.
To highlight the
significance and seriousness with which management at any level should attach
to the issue of motivation of employees.
To make managers
realise that motivating employees starts with motivating themselves.
To improve the flow of
interaction between superior and subordinate employees.
To ensure a timely
achievement of organisational goals.
To let manager knows
that increased job satisfaction means increased job performance.
interpersonal relationship among workers.
organisational goals along-side with individual employees objectives.
To make managers
understand that their motivators are also those of the employees.
productivity in manufacturing concern.
To convey how employee
results contribute to organisational results.
To boost the corporate
image of the organisation.
To make managers
listen to the problem of employees that are the backbone of the organisation.
To equip managers at
all levels with the necessary important issues of motivation.
To confirm to the
managers that money is not he only motivator.
To encourage workers
to participate in decision making of the organisation and also enrich their
To simplify the
workload of managers
To make managers
create an important relationship between the goals of the organisation and the
needs of employees.
Of The Study
Motivation should be considered as a principal topic of
interest by all managers. Motivation must not be treated differently from any
other named managers function. The
increasing number of internal and external forces of national and international
competition, economic, social, technological and governmental conditions have
forced management to develop and acquired new techniques and mechanism to
maintain levels of organisational efficiency and effectiveness. This required
the effective utilization of all resources of the organisation.
Because it is necessary that managers recognise that
organisational objectives are not just achieved alone without the full
participation of individual. Motivation is therefore a management technique in
realizing the goals of the organisation. Individuals need training for
efficiency and skill, they need rest, they need functional machine and other
input, they also need money to be able to fend for other social and physical
The different views about motivation lead to a number of
The analysis of
motivation should concentrate on factors that arouse or incite a person’s
Motivation is process
oriented and concerns choice, direction and goals.
concerns how behaviour is started, sustained or stopped and what kind of
subject reaction is present in the individuals.
In addition to the paragraph mentioned above, the
researcher enumerates the following vital points.
The study will enable
management to inculcate the right approach to positive motivation of employees.
Motivation will help
in maintaining a mutual relationship between management and employees as well
as sustaining individual peace.
and inspires the workers to perform up to expectation.
Motivation will enable
a timely goals actualization.
Motivation will enable
management to exploit the caliber of staff.
Motivation will act as
a psychological booster to the employee’s morale.
The researcher will test the following hypothesis in the
course of the research to ascertain their veracity.
Hypothesis 1: There is
statistically significant relationship between productivity and motivation.
Hypothesis 2: There is a negative
relationship between the workers productivity and level of training.
Hypothesis 3: Close supervision
has a positive relationship with productivity.
Hypothesis 4: Motivation of
employees has a positive relationship with employees productivity.
Hypothesis 5: There is no
significant difference between motivation and attainment of organisational
Hypothesis 6: Poor remuneration
and fringe benefit will demotivate employees.
Hypothesis 7: Increase in
employee pay has a positive relationship with the workers productivity.
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