training development are indispensable features if an establishment is achieving
its aims in an environment that is ever dynamic and volatile. In the same vein, establishments operate
policies the making of which employees may have input. In line with the above, this study is an
investigation into the impact of training and development on organizational
effectiveness within the financial service sector.
reference to Union Bank of Nigeria Plc, Lagos, the researcher relied on primary data obtained from the staff of the
organization by means of questionnaire administration. The sample size of the research was
determined from the staff strength using the random sampling method. The results of tested hypotheses revealed
that training and development of employees increase efficiency in policy
the non-challant attitudes of management toward training could hinder
employees’ participation in policy making. In conclusion, priority given to
staff training and development is reflected in the quality of policy and the
sophistication of the policy making process.
As part of its recommendations, the study highlighted, among others, the
need to extend training to all levels of staff and ensure that the issue is not
TABLE OF CONTENTS
to the Study
of the Problem
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Statement of Hypothesis
1.6 Scope of Study
1.7 Limitations of the Study
1.8 Definition of Terms
1.9 The Corporate Profile of Union Bank of
2.0 Literature Review
2.2 The Concept of Policy
2.3 Policy Formulation and Policy Options
2.4 Training and Development
2.5 Determination of Training Needs
2.6 Content of Training and Development
2.7 Evaluation of Training and Development
2.8 Types of Training
between Training, Development and Education
3.0 Research Methodology
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of Study
3.3 Sampling Size
3.4 Sampling Method
3.5. Sources of Data
3.6 Validity of the Measuring Instrument
3.7 Reliability of the Measuring Instrument
3.8 Method of Data Collection
3.9 Method of Data Analysis
4.0 Data Analysis and Interpretation
4.1 Data Analysis
4.2 Hypothesis Testing
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
TO THE STUDY
are agents or organs of policy implementation, and within the context of their
delivery of service or production, they are also empowered to make certain
policies. Policy making is an integral
feature of every establishment which has been designed for specific goals.
policy making is not considered as the common prerogative of all staff
members. Effective policy making is thus
a function of experience, competence and functional training.
government defines its policy objectives and fashions out policy statements in
practically all spheres of national life, establishmentsare expected to operate
within the confines of laid down policies.
development are means by which employees’ productivity is enhanced (Collins,
2001 164). At the same time, top
officials’ sensitivity and ability to formulate and respond to policies may
receive impetus from training and development as Balogun (1997:74) rightly
The irony of
how training and development are handled in the public sector lies in the poor
commitment to such programmes. In an age
when corruption appears to have occupied a large proportion of government
business, money allocated for training and development is either diverted or
those who in fact should have been given the opportunity for training are never
considered. The fact that policies are
prone to public criticism suggests that those who formulate policies and those
who implement them should be expose to regular training and development
programmes as Daily’s work (2004:35) concludes.
the whims and caprices exhibited by human beings, and in an Attempt to avoid
domination by the mighty, policy making is inevitable as this ensures that
people conduct themselves within a civilized frame of behavior. On the other hand, the process of training is
ultimately aimed at coursing a significant increase and change in the ability
of employees to contribute to the effectiveness of an establishment and laid
(Makinde,2005:17) Training is considered as pervasive
management activity occurring within an organizational context.
generally believed that the government ought to promote public Interest and
justify its actions as being in the public interest. In most cases, people’s appreciation of
government is restricted to making and enforcement of laws. They simply have not given any prominent
weight to government’s role in formulating and implementing public policies (Jeffery,
2002:19). Perhaps only the enlightened and concerned members of the academic
and social critics have done this, and will continue to do so.
cases, however, every training activity is aimed at accomplishing the dual
function of utilizing and improving existing skills and techniques of
operating. However, to achieve success,
training activities or practices must fulfill certain important conditions.
must also fully understand and appreciate the reason for Undergoing a certain
OF THE PROBLEM
are supposed to be the vehicles for bearing and implementing policies in order
to realize latent objectives. In the
same process, they have the prerogative to make certain policies within their
areas of operational jurisdiction. Apart
from the fact that most public establishments pay lip service to training,
others invest in training and development but hardly obtain value-returns in
terms of relevant expectations. Some
factors may be responsible.
attitude of employees to training and development is not tuned right. It may also be possible that employees fail
to see any personal benefits from such training and development programmes. Many establishments approach and meet
training needs in an adhoc or haphazard
way without a systematic objective expected in behavioural terms from employees
at the end of such training and development terms from employees at the end of
such training and development programmes.
This is where the need for evaluation arises.
the objectives of effective training and development, there has to be a proper
articulation of staff development scheme for all levels of staff and a
well-designed plan of deploying staff appropriately. But such features appear lacking a Union Bank
of Nigeria Plc. Again, Inadequate
funding is another constraint to the successful implementation of training and
development plans. Employees may attend
a training programme
That has no
direct bearing on the tasks they perform daily.
This cannot in any way sharpen their ability to contribute to the
process of policy making nor implementation.
Where staff training and development are not carried out or they lack
the quality that can improve the skills of employees, employees’ ability to
improve the policy making process will be negatively affected. Quality policy making is the product of sound
training and development of staff, but much inadequacy is apparent in service
establishments including Union Bank of Nigeria Plc.
In order to
arrive at a logical conclusion and ensure that a research is not conducted in a
disorderly manner, the purpose of study is imperative.
The study has
I. To examine the relationship between staff
training and policy making:
II. To examine the relationship between staff
development and policy making;
III. To ascertain the extent to which staff
development has any impact on policy making;
IV. To ascertain the extent to which staff
development has any impact in policy making;
V. To find out ways and means of instituting
standard staff training and development schemes that would make for improved
performance in terms of policy making in a service establishment; and
VI. To make recommendations, where necessary,
based on the findings from the study.
OF THE STUDY
This study is
considered significant and a valuable addition to the store of existing
knowledge in the area of training, development and policy making. A considerable difference exists between the
principles and practice of training. However,
only very few materials, if any, provide empirical evidence to back this
assertion. Again, materials that provide
a detailed description of training and development in view of policy making in
service establishments are scarce. This
gap is being therefore filled with this study.
If training activities do not achieve their
objectives, a good starting point would be to discover if such activities
conform to the principles under which they are practiced. Therefore, this study would provide valuable
insight as to reasons why training and development should sharpen officers’
ability to make and implement good policies.
The results of this study, it is expected, would have strong implication
on organizational policies as regards training, development and policy making.
administrators, policy analysts, critics, managers and top government
functionaries among others are bound to benefit immensely from this study. It s recommendations would also help in making
effective policies at the establishment level.
Students within the fields of public administration, political science,
human resources management and interested members of the public would serve as
a detailed and systematic presentation of findings with supportive data.
hypotheses were tested in the study.
Training and development of
employees do not increase efficiency in policy making in service
and development of employees increase efficiency in policy making in service
Ho: Non-challant attitude of management officials
development have not hindered employees’ training and development have hindered
employees’ positive participation in policy making.
H1: Non-challant attitudes of management officials to employees’
training and development have hindered employees’ positive participation in
OF THE STUDY
The study was
restricted only to training, development and policy making with reference to
public establishments. Specifically, the
Union Bank of Nigeria Plc was incorporated as a case study reference. The study therefore embraces the staff of the
establishment as population of study from which the sample size was
determined. The study was only aimed at
assessing the impact of training and development of staff on policy making.
OF THE STUDY
It is a
limitation that in the conduct of research, not all questionnaires administered
are promptly returned. This could have a
bearing on the result as available data may not be adequate enough to make
generalization. Again the subjectivity of respondents over which the researcher
has no direct control is a major constraint.
Using the Union Bank of Nigeria Plc as representative of other service
establishments in the service sector is a significant limitation because
opinions differ among the various staff of service establishments. Incorporating only the staff of union Bank of
Nigeria Plc is thus a limitation as this has reduced the coverage of the study
and its sample size.
terms as defined have been used accordingly in the body of this report.
Boost: In this study, any action taken
by management to encourage staff morale is considered as relevant.
Objective: Every establishment has a reason for existing and goals to
accomplish. The purpose of an establishment rightly therefore indentifies its
Subvention: Most government establishment receive statutory
financial allocations yearly from the government to enable them accomplish
Policy: A guide to action or behavior
is considered as a policy.
Establishments do not just act or perform tasks outside their
constitutionally ascribed jurisdiction.
They must be guided by a set of rules and regulations.
Staff Development: Since employees are
expected to remain stagnant, they grow through experience and exposure to new
ways of doing things. Hence all programmes
designed for this purpose are considered as constituting staff development.
1.9 THE CORPORATE PROFILE OF UNION BANK OF
Union Bank of
Nigeria Plc is a lender in the Nigerian Financial Sectors with a total of 311
branches nationwide. The bank has a full
fledged branch in London which is currently being updated into a subsidiary.
The Bank also
operates a representative office in South Africa. It is wholly owned and managed by Nigerians.
The Bank had
the largest asset among Nigeria’s financial institutions; totaling N329.6
billion as at the financial years ended March 312, 2003.
earnings stood at N2=34.7 billion with a current core capital of N31.2
billion. Union Bank of Nigerian Plc was
established in 1917 as a Colonial Bank with its first branch in Lagos. In 1925, Barclays Bank was formed to take
over the activities of the Bank.
and 1970, fifty new branches were established to bring the total number of 59,
the Bank was legally incorporated in Nigeria as a wholly owned subsidiary of
Barclays Bank International Limited and renamed Barclays Bank of Nigeria
Limited. The ownership structure
remained unchanged until 1971 when 8.33% of the Bank’s shares were offered to
Nigerians. In the same year, the Bank
was listed on the Nigerian stock Exchange.
As a result of the Nigerian Enterprises Promotion decree of 1972, the
Federal Government of Nigerian acquired 51.6% of the Bank’s shares, leaving
Barclays Bank Plc, London with 40%. In
1979, Barclays Bank sold its 50% shareholding to Nigerians. This resulted in the change of the Bank’s
name from Barclays Bank of Nigerian to Union Bank of Nigerian Limited to
reflect its new image and ownership structure.
shareholding was disposed in 1989.
Presently, Union Bank Plc is one of the oldest independent and
non-governmental banking institutions wholly owned and managed by
Nigerians. The Bank’s corporate head
office is located at 36, Marina in Lagos.
The Bank has a total of 7,645 employees occupying various positions at
its various branches and head office.
The Bank operates a wide range of banking services which include:
Time Deposit Scheme
Cashing Credit Facility
Foreign Currency Domiciliary Account
Agricultural Lending Scheme
Credit Information Services and Trade Enguires
Export Documentation and Finance
Loans and Overdrafts
Funds Transfer within and outside Nigeria
Letter of Credit
The bank has
put in place the structures, strategies and strong management team to enable it
stay ahead of competition. In every
State where Union Bank of Nigeria Plc operates branches, there is an area
office which co-ordinates the branches within the State. The Iganmu and Ojuelegba branches of the Bank
in Lagos were selected for this study.