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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00000513

No of Pages: 25

No of Chapters: 5

File Format: Microsoft Word

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Fresh samples of vegetable sald collected form different food outlet in Ilorin metropolis wer evaluated for bacteria loads, at a  temperature of 250c and the PH of the samples which is 3.7 using spread  plate agar diluteion method, the bacteria load ranges from 1.6x 104c fu/g to 11.5x104c fu/g  and faecal colifrom ranges from   1.6x 104c fu/g to    4.6x 104c fu/g associated with the salad  from majority of the samples, micro organism associated with vegetable salad  include, bacillus anthracis mycobacterium spp, Brucella spp, listeria , monocytogenis, yersima, enterolytia, clostridium , perfringens, Klebsiella spp and M. Paratuberculosis


Title page                                                                  i

Certification                                                              ii

Dedication                                                                 iii

Acknowledgement                                                      iv

Abstract                                                                    vi

Table of content                                                         vii


1.1   Introduction  



2.1   Materials and method       

2.2   Media preparation                                          

2.3   Isolation and identification     

2.4   Aims and objectives



3.1   Results  



4.1   Discussion                                               

4.2   Conclusion                                                       





Vegetable salad is a very common food accompaniment in Nigeria, the vegetables that usually make up this recipe include tomatoes, cucumber, carrots, green chili, cabbage and lettuce. They are sold in almost every market and can be seen hawked around by traders. Fruits and vegetables have identified as significant sources of pathogens and chemical contaminants (Uzeh et al., 2009)

As a result environmental and food microbiologist have continued to identify and suggest control measures for hazards at all stages in the supply chain (Johngen, 2005).

Khan et al, (1992) reported that bacterial contamination results from various insanitary cultivation and marketing practices. In another study, tanben et al (2006) reported that nbacterial contaminated of salad vegetables was linked to the fact that they are usually consumed without any heat treatment. These vegetable can become contaminated with pathogenic micro-organisms during harvesting through human handling, harvesting equipment, transport containers, wild and domestic animals. Pathogens from the human and animal reserviour as well as other environment pathogens can be found at the time of consumption. Although spoilage bacteria, yeasts and mouldtominate the micro flina on raw fruits and vegetable, the occasional presence of pathogenic bacteria, parasites and viruses capable of causing human infective has also been documented, (Hassa et at 2006).

Coliforms are facultative anaerobic grain negative rods belonging to the family enterobacteriaacaea. They are known contaminants of food and water causing various intestinal and extra intestinal infections such as urinary, central nervous system and respiratory tract infections (John 2007)

The presence of e. coli enterobacteriasp, salmonella sp, and pseutomonasaerugmosa has been reported in salad vegetables (Khan et al 1992) (Tanbakar 2006). (Mehmet and Ayjin 2008), also reported that the presence of E. coli in some green leafy vegetables due to the favourable climatic for favourable cultivation of salad vegetables, as well as the cultural practice of dwellers in the northern Nigeria, the consumption  rate of these vegetable is higher than in other regions in Nigeria (Beuchat 1995)

The bacteria specie isolated from fresh vegetables purchased supermarkets and from most vegetable eater fresh by consumers. However, raw vegetables may pose a risk of transmitting opportunity bacteria to immune compromised presumptively identified as p. Aerugmosaisolatean and cultivation methods.

Bacteria contamination was identified as originating from 3 major routes. The soils manure, (facial material0 and the street (Abdullahi 2010).

Salad is a food made primarily of a mixture of raw vegetables and fruits. Health benefits of salad are many, owing to the various vegetables present in them. Vegetables are a good source of anti-oxidants and phytonutrients. They are low in calories and are rich in complex carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals. Salads should be cleansed properly as they are generally eaten raw and partially cooked. If these are not cleansed properly,these becomes source of food born illnesses (Beauchat 1995)

Pathogen and edible plants present a significant potential source of human illness. A significant portion of enteric pathogen can persist on the surface and proliferation of these dangerous pathogens can increase the likelihood of food-borne disease associated with fresh or minimally processed produce.

Fresh vegetables and fruits becomes contaminated with microorganisms during production, harvest, packing, abd distribution (Bartz 2003).

Several outbreaks of gastro enteritis have been linked to the consumption of contaminated fresh vegetable borne outbreaks which occurred in japan in 1996 in which 11.000 people was affected and about 6,000 cultures were confirmed. The outbreak involved the death of three children and was carried by Escherichia coli. The most common bacteriaentrepathogensassociated with fruits and vegetables are salmonella spp. (Thinberg 2002) E. coli. 6157 outbreaks were associated with cider, lettuce, radish, alfalfa sprouts and other mixed salads (Beuchat 1995).

As the salad carrot, carinter, and cucumber have a very high consumer preference and eaten raw or partially cooked dye to health effect throughout the country. The present work was undertaken to determine the bacteriaological quality of fresh salads sold by the street vendorsjaipin city (Beuchat 1995).

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