TABLE OF CONTENTS
to the Study
of the Problem
of the Study
of the Study
of the Study
Definition of Terms
2.1 Conceptual Background
2.1.1 The Concept of Career Decision
2.1.2 The Concept of Psychological Factors
2.1.3 Sociological Approaches to Career
2.1.4 Psychological Approaches to Career Decision
2.2. Theories in the Study
2.2.1 Gimberg Theory of Personality
2.2.2 Self-Efficacy Theory
2.3 Empirical Review of Literature
2.3.1. Career Decision and Psychological Factors
2.3.2. Parental Involvement/Influence on the Career
2.3.3. Cultural Background and Career Decision
2.3.4. Motivation and Career Decision
2.3.5. Self-Efficacy and Career Decision
3.1. Research Design
3.3. Sample and Sampling
3.4. Instrument for Data
3.5. Procedure for Data
3.6. Reliability of Research
3.7. Method of Data Analysis
DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION
4.2 Data Analysis
4.3 Test of Hypothesis
4.4 Discussion of Findings
5.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
to the Study
In the downtrend of
the socio-economic status of a nation, a situation where the economic stability
of a nation shakes, the need for an individual to choose rightful paths that
will lead to uninterrupted and life-changing career is highly required. In
essence, in any economic crisis nation like Nigeria, the chances of economic
survival of individuals depend solemnly on the right ability to choose a course
that can maximize the economic sustainability of such an individual. Hence, career
making is absolutely essential.
Decision making is
the process of identifying and selecting alternatives based on unique
preferences. Therefore, successful career planning requires many decisions, an
ability to set goals and the ability to reach the set goals in a proper time.
Nevertheless, it should be noted that career decisions are among the most
challenging things one could ever make in life. This is so, when a wrong
decision is made, the outcome is always obvious in the way, manner, and attitude
of such an individual throughout his or her life. It is equally glaring that
decisions involved uncertainty, which makes many people uncomfortable. Nonetheless,
planning can reduce the degree of uncertainty and increase chances of achieving
the desired goals.
Career decision can
be dangerous when individuals have no knowledge about its implications.
Nevertheless, Sharf (2002) opines that career decision making helps to identify
factors involved in a person’s career decision and provides an understanding of
the way these factors have an impact on their career decision and choice. Based
on the opinion of Sharf, it is obvious that career decision is an important
aspect of every human to successful career, especially in an economic crisis
nation like Nigeria.
Examining the core
concept of career decision, Patteon and McMalion (1999) in Siriwan (2011)
identify three broad factors that predetermine the outcome of choosing a
career. These factors are; a clear understanding of oneself, which includes the
abilities of every individuals, aptitudes, interest, ambition, resources,
limitations and knowledge of their causes; the second factor is the knowledge
of the requirement which preclude, condition of success, advantages and
disadvantages, compensation, opportunities and prospects in different lines of works.
The third factor that is identified by Patton and McMalion (1999) in Siriwan
(2011) is true reasoning on the relations of the two groups above. It can be
deduced therefore that numerous variables are responsible for the failure and
success of career decision among individuals especially students in the
considered psychological factor that affects the way and manner at which an
individual perceived a job opportunity and career decision notwithstanding
(Pitts, 2007). Expatiating on the concept of attitude towards the rightful
decision making, Okonkwo (2010) obliges that that negative attitudes of
parents, relatives and teachers of students presupposely affect the attitudes
of students against choosing career in life. Attitude according to Della (2003),
is a way one behave towards someone or something, especially when showing how
one feels. In essence, attitude is an imbued trait that is only perceived when
put on display. Hence, the level of attitude of an individual tactically
predicts the outcome of the perceived views or perception of students towards a
Emphasizing the issue
of interest, the home plays a significant role in this regard as many parents
may discourage or encourage their wards on a particular career. Hence, the interest
of students can be felt based on the attitude of parents towards chosen career.
Chukwu (2002) states that the interest has been viewed as emotionally oriented
behavioral trait which determines a student’s whim and rigour in tackling
educational programmes or other activities. Therefore, attitude is an affective
behavior that can be aroused and sustained through the families, parents and or
teachers of students in career decision making.
Another variable of
interest in this study is personality. Personality is seen as someone’s
character, especially the way one behaves towards other people. According to
Della (2003) personality is the quality that makes someone interesting,
friendly and enjoyable to be with. In career decision therefore, personality is
an aspect that determines chosen career of any students. Holland (1959) in
Siriwan (2011) personality types and work environment highlight the
characteristics of job relation to individuals’ personalities and interests.
Personality therefore is believed to occupy noticeable space in the career
decision and its outcome in students. Deliberating on the issue of personality,
Brown (2002) believes that in choosing career, students’ personality
predetermined what the decision will fulfill, hence, it is a considerable fact
that personality of individual results in choosing careers.
another variable of interest in the study. It can be seen as a self-evaluation
of one’s competence in successful execution of a course of action necessary to
reach desired outcomes. Eimmerman (2000) sees self-efficacy as a
multidimensional construct that varies according to the domain of demands and
therefore, it must be evaluated at a level that is specific to the outcome
domain. The concept of self-efficacy was introduced by Albert Bandura in 1977
when he uses social learning theory to investigate personality development.
Bandura (1977) in Siriwan (2011) posits that personality develops through
learning experiences and human cognitive process. These factors include individual
factors which refer to behavior; environmental factors which refers to the
external aspect associated with an individual’s learning; and psychological
factors which refers to cognitive process associated with how individual learn
from the consequences of the interaction between individual and environmental
factors, such as their perception of learning experiences and their approach to
problem solving. Hence, the concept of self-efficacy is been regarded as a key
personality factors influencing career decision. Bandura, Barbaranelli,
Caprara, and Pastorelli, (2001) found that children tended to base their career
choices on their perceived occupational self-efficacy rather than on their
academic performance. It is also obvious that socio-economic environment
appeared to have an indirect impact on students because it influences parents’
self-efficacy and their educational aspiration for their wards.
Examining the reason
behind students’ decision in choosing a particular course of study, Maringe
(2006) finds that students choose a career based on their interest, employment
opportunities and career prospect after graduation. However, many students
choose a career not because they find delight in the job afterward but because
they see it as a fast rising opportunity for quick employment after graduation.
Hence, their main objective is towards gainful employment after graduation.
There are various factors associated with students’ career decision this
includes the relationship between gender and students’ decisions to pursue a
career in entrepreneurship due to increased prospect in employment. However,
Schwars, Wdowiak, Almer-Jarz, and Breitenecker (2009) suggest that male
students express deep interest in having their own business than female
students. The opportunity to undertake is another factor affecting students’
career decision. It has been argued that work experience provides students with
opportunities to explore different jobs and learn about their future career
(Siriwan, 2011). Feldman and Whitecomb (2005) opine that students with limited
work experience tend to lack the stability to generate career options or make
career decision based on career interest rather than abilities associated with
their career. Hence, students with work experience; all which are considered to
be psychological factors might not be able to adequately close a career that
will facilitate economic growth of the nation.
The extent to which
sociological factors predict career decision of students cannot be
underestimated. Annualizing the sociological factor that determines career
decision include the parental influence or background and school environment of
students. It is important to note that both parental influence and background
and school environments enormously conjoined with psychological variables to
determine the career option of students. This means that not single variable
influence career decision of students.
Parental influence or
background plays an important role in students’ career decision making. This
can be illustrated thus: illiterate parents with low socio-economic status
might not see the need to influence and support their wards towards choosing a
career that is lucrative instead, they would prefer them choosing career that
can easily be ventured to after graduation. According to Max, Ellsworht and
Hawley (2008), graduates teachers who indicated strong persistence and
satisfaction with their teaching career who had fathers who were teachers are
few compared to those that their fathers are in another field. This shows that
graduates career similarity to their parents particularly their mothers, was a
factor predicting job satisfaction and career persistence. The education
background of parents therefore influence the level at which students chooses
their career. It is believed that level of socio-economic status/structure of a
family influence the career decision of students’ right from elementary schools.
Greenbank and Hepworth (2008) opine that lack of financial support have
negative impact on students decision making. It is obviously difficult for a
student from a very low socio-economic background to finance his or her
education in courses that are money-consuming. In essence, students from a very
low socio-economic background will therefore prefer a less expensive career or
a course in tertiary institutions.
Culture is believed
to have great impact on the way individual think, behave and make decision
(Jefferys, 2004). The impact of culture on career decision highlighted that culture
underpins the fundamental judgments that individuals make hence, these
judgments influence the behavioral intentions, expectations and outcomes
relevant to particular careers in their cultural context. Kooij, de Lange,
Jansen, and Dikkers (2008) perceive that career decision suggest that there are
similarities in the factor associated with career decision making in different
cultures. In Nigeria, the cultural background or individual might influence the
nature of career one chooses. For example, those from riverine area of the
country will prefer careers relating to their environment rather than very
School environment is
another sociological variable that determines the career choice of students.
According to Aikomo (2014), school environment, otherwise known as school
climate determines the success of students with high intellectual capabilities.
Hence, it affects the career choice of such individual in the future. In a safe
and structured environment, students can focus their attention on learning. Therefore
the level of conduciveness of the school environment can be predicted to have
great influence on the right choice of profession in which such students will
focus. Based on the foregoing, the study will investigate the aforementioned
psycho-sociological factors as predictive of the career decision of students in
some selected secondary schools in Afijio Local Government Area of Oyo State.
Statement of the Problem
Many students in
secondary schools do choose career that negatively affect their economic status
in the future. This depends on the standing views of such students in
conjunction with the views of their parents. However, numerous factors are
responsible for the downtrends among which is the perception of parents in
decision making of their wards, the school climate, cultural background of
students, self-efficacy, personality and parental influence among others.
factors are leading concepts in determining the career decision of making of students;
yet, it is seldom discussed, researched and critiqued. However, the side
effects of wrong or negative career decision are yet to be adequately examined.
Therefore, the combined influence of the psycho-sociological factors will
result in future decadence of wrong career decision made by students.
Purpose of the Study
Generally, this study
will investigate the psycho-sociological factors as it predicts career decision
Specifically, the study will:
the relationship between psychological factors and sociological factors
the relationship between attitudes and the career decision of students.
the relationship between personality, self-efficacy and career decision making
the relationship between culture, parental influence, and school climate and
career decision of students of secondary schools.
Scope of the Study
The study will investigate
the psycho-sociological factors that determine or predict career decision of
students in secondary schools. Hence, this study will be carried out in some
selected secondary schools of Afijio Local Government Area of Oyo State,
Significance of the Study
The results of this
study would be useful to parents, students, teachers, government, and
professionals like that of school counselors that are involved in the education
of students in secondary schools.
The parents would
benefit from the findings of this study, in the sense that they would be able
to influence positively the career decisions of their wards. It will identify
the various factors that relate to the career decision of their wards; hence,
it would enable them to provide the kind of home environment that would enhance
positive career decision of their wards.
The findings of the
study would equally help the students themselves to identify the relationship
between parental involvements in their career decisions. It would enable them
to tactically oblige to career that will elevate their socio-economic status
and national developments.
Furthermore, teachers of students
in secondary schools will benefit from the findings of this study as it shall
assist them in inculcating the right knowledge of various resourceful career
opportunities to their students. Hence, it will assists the students in
choosing the best career options that will elevate their wellbeing and personal
up keeping in the future.
especially school counselors will benefit from adequately counsel students,
especially those in senior secondary schools of the risks that are there in
choosing wrong career in life. Also, stakeholders in the aforementioned areas
will benefit from this study as the findings shall complement the existing body
of knowledge in this area.
Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms
are often used in the study and therefore shall be operationally defined for
refers to the process of selecting or identifying best option out of many
preferences. In other words, decision making entails the process of choosing
the best practice out of so many various and available options.
Career: This refers to the professions
that are known by various disciplines. Career refers to series of job that a
person has in particular area of work, usually involving more responsibility as
time passes. In another way round, career can be explained as a chosen area of
interest in which an individual finds pleasure doing for uplifting and
transforming the economics of self and the nation.
Motivation: this refers to what initiates
and sustains a student’s involvement in the act of learning. To a large extent,
it determines the direction and efficiency of learning of students.
Attitude: it refers to the way one behaves
towards someone or something, especially when showing how one feels. Attitude
can also be referred to as an imbued trait that can only be perceived when put
personality trait is the biological, genetic makeup of someone, and it is the
quality that makes someone interesting, friendly, and enjoyable to be with. It
refers to the aspects that determine one’s area of interest.
Self-efficacy: it is a multidimensional
construct that varies according to domains of demands and which can be
evaluated at a level of a specific to the outcome domain.
refers to the home environment provided by parents that can ignite or increase the
interest of students towards learning or choosing a particular area of human
Culture: it refers to the cumulative disposition
of knowledge, experience, beliefs, values, attitudes, meaning hierarchies,
religions, notions of time, roles, spatial relations concepts and the universe;
and material objects and possessions acquired by a group of people in the
course of generations through individual and group striving.
this refers to the physical and instructions available in a learning
environment. This includes the type of available personnel, nature, and mode of
instruction, classroom management and classroom structures.
Investigation: this refers to an official
examination of facts about a situation, crime or concept. This also refers to
the scientific or academic examination of the facts of subject or a period. As
used in this study, it refers to the process of examining and testing to know
the truth about concepts.
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