Infact, the aim
of this study is to create awareness on the Halitosis among students in SICHST
Makarfi Local Government Area, Kaduna State. Halitosis or most commonly bad
breath are terms used to describe noticeably unpleasant odor exhaled in
breathing. Halitosis is a condition affecting both male and female in all ages,
Halitosis can cause by eating of certain foods, like cooked eggs, garlic,
onions, smoking and drinking alcohol, which when absorbed into our blood
stream, are transferred to the lungs and exhaled breath will be produced as bad
breath, suffering from some systemic disease such as liver, kidney, diabetic
mellitus, and digestive track infection whereby gases are blocked from passing
the stomach or intestines.
Title page - - - - - - - - - - i
Declaration - - - - - - - - - ii
Approval Page - - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - v
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - vii
Table of Contents - - - - - - - - viii
the Study - - - - - - - 1
the Problems - - - - - - - 4
Purpose of the
Study - - - - - - - - 5
the Study - - - - - - - 5
Questions - - - - - - - - 6
of the Study - - - - - - - - 6
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE - - - - 7
History - - - - - - - - - - 7
Causes - - - - - - - - - - 10
Types - - - - - - - - - - 14
Symptoms - - - - - - - - 15
Diagnosis - - - - - - - - - - 16
Control - - - - - - - 20
Management - - - - - - - - - 23
CHAPTER III - - - - - - - - - 27
Research Design - - - - - - - - 27
Area of the
Study - - - - - - - - 28
the Study - - - - - - - 29
Sampling Technique - - - - - - 30
Data Collection - - - - - - 30
Validity of the
Instrument - - - - - - - 31
the Instrument - - - - - - 31
Data Collection - - - - - - 32
Data Analysis - - - - - - 32
Presentation and Analysis - - - - - - 34
Summary - - - - - - - - - - 38
Discussion - - - - - - - - - - 39
Finding - - - - - - - - - - 40
Recommendations - - - - - - - - 40
Suggestions - - - - - - - - - 41
Conclusion - - - - - - - - - - 41
References - - - - - - - - - - 43
Questionnaire - - - - - - - - - 45
Background of the Study
or most commonly bad breath are terms used to describe noticeably unpleasant odor
exhaled in breathing (Gage, 2007).
can be important social problem in which the standard dental treatment and
mouth wash that are often recommended provide only temporary relief. The smell
is from an oral source due to bacterial activities (Rosemberg, 2002).
malodor is primarily the result of microbial metabolism, the mouth is a home of
hundreds of bacterial species with various nutritional preferences. The most
common location for mouth related halitosis is the tongue. Tongue bacterial
produce malordor and fatty acid and count for about 80 to 90 percent of all
cases of mouth related bad breath. Large quantities of naturally occurring
bacteria are often found on the dorsum of the tongue, where they are relatively
undisturbed by normal activities. This part of the tongue is relatively dry and
poorly cleansed and bacterial populations can thrive on remnants of food
deposits, dead epithelial cells and post nasal drip. The convoluted microbial
structure of the tongue dorsum provides an ideal habitat for anaerobic
bacterial, which flourish under a continually – forming tongue coating of food
debris, dead cells, post nasal drip and overlying bacteria living and dead when
left on the tongue the anaerobic respiration of such bacterial can yield either
the putrescent smell of indole, skatole, methyl mercapton, alloymethyl sulfide
and dimethyl sulfide (Tonzentich, 1997).
organism digest protein, and several fatid substance arise leading to bad
breath. Oral malodor from the overgrowth of proteolytic, anerobic gram negative
bacterial the creavices of the tongue dorsum can be successfully diagnosed and
treated (Lochner et al, 2000).
are several causes of halitosis although the main one is oral bacterial over 90
million people suffer from chronic halitosis which is medical term for bad
breath in most cases halitosis originate from the gums and tongue, caused by
bacterial from the decay of food particles, other debris in the mouth and poor
oral hygiene. In most cases (85-90%) bad breath originate in the mouth itself.
intensity of bad breath differ during the day, due to eating of certain foods
such as garlic, onions, meat, fish, egg, cheese, smoking and alcohol
consumption, since the mouth is exposed to less oxygen and is in active during
the night, the odor is usually worse upon awakening (morning breath). Bad
breath may be transient of ten disappearing following brushing teeth, flushing
or rinsing with special mouth wash (Tammy Devenport, 2007).
breath may also be persistent (chronic bad breath). Which is a more serious
condition affecting some 25 percent of the population in varying degrees. It
can negatively affect the individual’s personal, social and business
relationship leading to poor self esteem and increased stress. Halitosis is a
medical term for bad breath and this is quite serious as a social disorder.
Halitosis can cause extremely embarrassing situation in social interaction and
relationship at work and in your personal life as well (Lell et al, 2006).
some bad breath seem to be associated with local pathological causes such as
gingivitis (especially ANUG), periodontal disease, infected extraction sockets,
or other types of oral species. In some cases, other possibilities that favour
oral malodor are the presence of residual blood post operatively, debris under
bridge or appliances, ulcer, dry mouth, and perfection of post nasal mucus drip
stagnating on the tongue (Wd Kazor, 2002).
methods used to control halitosis (bad breath) the most widely-known reason to
clean the tongue is for the control of bad breath. Method used against bad
breath, such as mints, mouth sprays and mouth wash, may only temporarily mask
the odour created by the bacteria on the tongue but cannot cure bad breath
because they don’t remove the source of bad breath, in order to prevent the
production of the sulfur – containing compounds mention above the bacteria on
the tongue must be removed regularly. Most people who clean their tongue use a
(tongue scraper) or a tooth brush (Dent Hes, 2007).
Statement of the Problems
of certain foods, like cooked eggs, garlic, onion which when absorbed into our
blood stream, are transferred to the lungs and exhaled breath will be produced
as bad breath.
from some systemic diseases such as liver and kidney, diabetic mellitus,
digestive track infection whereby gases are blocked from passing the stomach or
mouth is dry, saliva production decreases leaving the mouth natural ability to
clean itself impaired. Saliva is mouth’s natural mouth wash which contain
properties that keep the mouth clean.
Purpose of the Study
To identify the occurrence of Halitosis
among students in SICHST Makarfi.
To find out the causes of Halitosis among
students in SICHST Makarfi.
To determine the measures of awareness,
prevention and treatment of Halitosis.
To create hope that there is a solution
to the problems of Halitosis.
Significance of the Study
significance of the study is to find out the occurrence of halitosis among the
students in SICHST, Makarfi.
will help to proffer suggestion in understanding the existing oral health
problems and develop oral health programs in the College, and assist oral
health practitioners to provide a special oral health services such as oral
health talk to entire students in SICHST Makarfi, and also help the management
of the College to introduce oral health care in every department.
How common is Halitosis among students
in SICHST Markafi?
What are the predisposing factors that
lead to Halitosis?
What are the measures of awareness,
prevention and treatment of Halitosis among students in SICHST Makarfi?
Scope of the Study
scope of this study is limited to Halitosis among students in SICHST Makarfi
which consist of causes, prevention and treatment.
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