decision usually involves substantial’s expenditures on new assets. These
decisions are particularly important because the firm losses much of its
flexibility by looking into projects and because budgeting decisions define the
firm strategic direction. Capital budgeting in Ikorodu local government is very
vital and must be approached with all sense of diligence. This project is
intended to create awareness in capital budgeting in Nigeria local government.
The need for this study arises from the variation in capital budgeting in
Ikorodu local government that has been noticed and this research work hoped to
improve the standard. In order to achieve this, project has gone into so many
past works of authors and related literatures. The data for the study were made
up of primary data. Interviews and questionnaires were used for proper and
precise responses. The questions were of the closed type. This was done to
empower the respondents and chi-square was used to analysis the result.
decisions are made in terms of both quantitative factors (monetary measure of
costs and benefits) and qualitative factors (non-monetary measure of costs and
benefits). Capital budgeting decisions are particularly difficult in non-profit
organizations such as national and local government organizations, since it is
not always possible to precisely quantify the costs and benefits of a project.
The major findings that
emerge from the study can be summarized as follows:
There is relationship between
effectiveness of Ikorodu Local government and optimal allocation of resources
There is relationship between efficiency
of Ikorodu Local government and optimal allocation resources.
Effectiveness and efficiency of
capital budgeting improve the revenue generation of Ikorodu Local government
From the above
mentioned summary of major findings, it is observed that capital budgeting is
very relevant to public sector organizations.
It was recommended that
capital budgeting aids planning of annual operations, co-ordinating the
activities of the various parts of the organization, communication of plans to
various responsibility centre manager, motivating managers to achieve
organizational goals. Control of activities and evaluation of the performance
or governmental institutions or government and its enable the management of
nonprofit organization to make more informed decisions about the allocation of
resources to meet the overall objectives of the organization.
OF CONTENTS 3
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY 5
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM 8
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 9
OF THE STUDY 10
OF HYPOTHESES 11
AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 12
OF THE STUDY 12
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS 12
1.9 ORGANISATION OF THE STUDY 14
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE
OF TRADE UNION IN NIGERIA 17
TRADE UNION? 20
OF TRADE UNION 21
IF TRADE UNION 24
OF TRADE UNION 28
UNION ORDINANCE 1938 - 1973 30
2.9 GRIEVANCES 33
2.10 INTIMIDATION 33
OF STRIKE ON THE NIGERIAN UNIVERSITY
2.12 CONCILIATION 34
2.13 ARBITRATION 35
2.14 TRADE UNION GOVERNMENT AND
ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA 36
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH
3.1 INTRODUCTION 39
OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS 39
OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESES 39
OF STUDY 41
SIZE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE 41
OF DATA COLLECTION 41
OF DATA ANALYSIS 42
3.10 LIMITATION OF THE METHODOLOGY 43
3.11 BRIEF HISTORY OF ASUU 43
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION,
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
4.0 INTRODUCTION 45
OF DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT 45
ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL STATEMENT 46
OF HYPOTHESIS 62
OF FINDINGS 73
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY,
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
OF THE MAJOR FINDINGS 75
5.1 CONCLUSION 76
5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS 77
5.3 SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDIES 79
TO THE STUDY
Union is the Principal institution of workers in modern capitalist Societies.
They are political institutions with elected leaders and they have political
characteristics and seek to use political power to influence governmental
agencies in their immediate interests; their primary objective is bargaining
effectiveness (Okogwu, 2008).
(2005) postulated that Unionisms is one organization in which the individual
tries to survive in a group.
unionism is presumptive. First, it is to be assumed that labour and capital are
at variance with each other as far as the reasons of production are concerned.
The employer representing capital wants to maximize his profit whereby the
workers representing labour wants to maximize his benefits.
of them has a case, both sides must get “Justice” for the sake of the economy.
Babangida government in Nigeria
(1985 – 1993), for example, constantly resorted to detaining the Nigerian
labour congress (NLC) leadership to forestall demonstrations or strikes.
February 1988, it wound up the Nigerian labour congress executive council and
appointed a sole administrator to pre-empt protest against fuel prices rises,
although in vain. But this is the same government that gave the Nigerian labour
congress N50million to build its national secretariat.
Nigerian experience evidenced the bi-polarity in International relations. The
trade union congress having been split on the question of affiliation with the
National Council of Nigeria and Cameroon (NCNC) in the late 40s, the trade
union movement in Nigeria
experienced its second split in the 1950, over international affiliation with
each of the national centers favouring affiliation to the west or the East
cat and dog relationship between capital and labour predated the industrial
revolution. The 1st trade union in Nigeria was the Southern Nigeria
Civil Service Union found on August,
19th 1992, and become Nigeria Civil Service Union in
the Yoruba will say “The labourer can neither enjoy his reward alone” Roper has
captured it succinctly!
increase of wages may mean an increase of dependents, an improved housing
standard may invite uncontrollable overcrowding and the apprenticing of
relatives may disguise serious exploitation” therefore, unionism is a political
Wogu (2005) rightly argues:-
African workers are a qualitative minority without, then, government cannot
function; without them, commerce and industry would cease to operate. Wages
paid to them are often not only for them and their immediate families but
common assets shared by their father and mothers, brothers and sisters, and
other extended families… therefore, the
great improvements in the standard of living of mankind could not have been
attained without workers and their organizations.
concludes that “The truth must be acknowledged that what is done in the
interest of workers and their organizations is a service to their countries,
and what is done against them is a disservice to their country.
workplace is known for the financial tussle between workers and employers.
Employers being owners of capital usually have the upper hand in the bargaining
process and even dictate terms of employment unilaterally in some cases.
Workers on the other hand, know that this imbalance have to be corrected so as
to stand a better chance of realizing their demands in the workplace.
the desire to form trade unions; this in return has brought about various
benefits for workers such as: Economic benefit, social benefits, welfare
benefits and political benefit.
these unions adopt structures suitable for their demand in the workplace. Union most especially in Britain and United States,
adopts the craft structure initially before evolving into industrial ones and
some later metamorphosed into general unions. These structures were adopted in
order to strengthen the unions and to enhance their impact in the workplace.
the formation of trade unions does not imply the automatic realization of
worker’s demands. Workers’ demands are only realized based on the union
strength. It has often been asserted that unions in Africa are too weak to
bargain effectively (Roberts and Greyfie De Belle Combe, 2007).
is in the light of this that lecturers across different universities in Nigeria came
together in (1978) to form the Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU).
union was formed with the objectives of establishing and maintaining high
standard of academic performances and proper condition of service for its
members among others. Therefore, the workplace is a place of power relations
between the workers and the employer. This is as a result of the existence of
more divergent views and interest than the convergent ones they have. So it is
a situation whereby the party that wields together power tends to take the
greater share of the workplace benefits.
unions have to be strong if they are to achieve the demands of their members if
otherwise, the unions would fall for the cheapest exploitations of their
employers and these would be a detriment to the union structures and also
definitely affect the union strength which would eventually give the employee
and upper hand in the workplace. Therefore, the stronger the structure of the
trade union, the stronger its strength and the better it will achieve its aims
OF THE PROBLEM
can be understood from the foregoing that the responsibilities of the trade
union are enormous and its problems are legendary. Though, unions exist
virtually in every sector of the economy, the Academic system is no exemption.
Union (ASUU) strength in the workplace happens to be in doubt because many of
their problems arises as a result of non-compliance to negotiated agreement by
either of the two parties involved in the negotiation process.
there are several demands of ASUU from the government to improve the working
condition of their members and to some extent; this has not been meaningfully
achieved. In this sense, if the demands of ASUU are not well taken care of the
leadership of ASUU deems it fit to call upon their members across the nation to
embark on a “STRIKE ACTION” whenever their negotiation with the government
most strike actions embarked on by ASUU is as a result of the fact that most
agreement entered into by the union (ASUU) and the government are not always
implemented by the government and this has been destructive to the academic
field thereby creating unnecessary criticisms from various social institutions
such as Religious Institutions, family, peer groups etc.
ASUU in their desire to improve the employment conditions of their members are
faced with problems from successive government in various negotiations in the
course of agitating for good working conditions of their members. The union
found it so difficult to influence government policies, practices and Actions.
when collective bargaining, joint negotiations, statutory labour codes fails,
the only machinery left to ASUU to express their grievance is to embark on
“STRIKE” which eventually affects the nation as a whole.
OF THE STUDY
purpose of this study is to:
To find out the effectiveness of the
existing structure of ASUU.
To determine the effect of this structure
on its activities.
To examine the influence of the structure
on ASUU negotiation strategy
To examine various demands of ASUU
To determine ASUU authority/government
determine the extent at which ASUU has satisfied the interest of its members.
To provide plausible recommendations for improved
ASUU performance and university Education.
there a relationship between ASUU structure and working conditions of its
the existing structure of ASUU influenced its negotiating strategy?
effect does the mobilization strategy of ASUU have on its members?
there a relationship between ASUU’s structure and public responses?
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES
1. H0: There is no relationship between the existing structure of ASUU
and the negotiation strategy of its members
H1: There is a significant relationship between the existing
structure of ASUU and the negotiation strategy of its members.
2. H0: The mobilization strategy of ASUU does not have any effect
on its members’ responses
H1: The mobilization strategy
of ASUU has a significant effect on its members’ responses
3. H0: There is no significant relationship between ASUU’s structure and
conflict among its members
H1: There is significant relationship between
ASUU’s structure and conflict among its members
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
we have four (4) unions in the University system of Nigeria, but the study
would be restricted to just one of the unions which is the Academic Staff
Unions of Universities (ASUU). This is as a result of time and financial
there are various issues as regards trade union but this study shall lay more
emphases on trade union structure and union strength. Nevertheless, other issues
that affect trade unions would be discussed briefly as long as it has some
level of relevance to the project topic.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
study shall be of significance to various members of the ASUU Union in the
University because of the alternative administrative and governance approach it
would come up with. The study would also be of relevance to other students who
would wish to conduct further studies in this topic of all levels be it
undergraduate or post graduate who virtually intends to study the structures
and strength of trade union critically.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Union: Any combination of workers or employers whether temporary or
permanent, the purpose of which is to regulate the terms and conditions of
employment of workers whether the combination in question, would or not be a
part this act, be an unlawful combination by reason of its purpose being in
restaurant of trade and whether its purposes do not include limitations to its
members (The Nigerian Trade Union Act of 1973 section 1).
Trade Union Structure: The
principles which underlie the pattern of union organization: the criteria of
inclusion and exclusion, the laws of demarcation and division (Hyman 2006)
power to induce the taking of a course of action on the embracing of a point of
view by means of argument on entreaty. It is also, the permanent of virtue of
power to resist stress or force.
is defined as the temporary stoppage of work in future pursuance of a grievance
or a demand.
Collective Bargaining: (ILO)
defined collective bargaining as “negotiation of working conditions and terms
of employment between employers, a group of employers or one or more employer’s
organization on one hand, and the representative of workers organization on the
other hand, with a view to reaching an agreement.
Bargaining Power: Prof
Tayo Fashoyin, defined bargaining power as the ability of one party in the
negotiation to secure agreement on its own term or at a point of closest to his
preferred position. Bargaining power is transitory in nature. It is not the
monopoly of one party.
is a formal discussion between two or more people who are trying to reach an
is a very firm request for certain things or action in order to carry out
specific taste and functions.
is a negative reaction or expression displayed by individual or group of
individuals in disagreement to certain rule, Acts, negotiations, agreement,
Collective Agreement: Section
47 of the Trade Dispute Act CAP 432, laws of the federation of Nigeria 1990
defines collective agreements as any agreement in writing for the settlement of
disputes and relating to terms of employment and physical conditions of work of
1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is divided into five
chapter’s that is chapter one to five. The chapter is the introduction part,
which covers the background of the study, statement of the problem, the
objectives of the study, research hypothesis, significance of the study, scope
and delimitations of the study, definitions of terms and organization of the
study. Chapter two contains literature review and theoretical framework.
Chapter three contains the research methodology which covers the research
method (instrument) or approach, the population of the study, the sample and
sampling procedure, the method of data collection and method of data analysis
and interpretations. Chapter four contains the data presentation, analysis and
interpretations. In this chapter, the data gathered from the respondents will
be presented analyzed and interpreted. Chapter five contains the summary,
conclusion and recommendations based on the result in chapter four.
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