• 0 Review(s)

Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00002841

No of Pages: 37

No of Chapters: 5

File Format: Microsoft Word

Price :



This work is concerned mainly with the production of ethanol from yam (Discoria spp) peels. The yam tubers were bought from Eke Oko Market, in Orumba North L.G.A. Anambra State. The tubers were peeled and the peels washed, milled & weighed. To 1000g of the powdered wort, distilled water was added, mashed & filtered. Yeast & malt were added to the filtered wort and allowed to stand for three days for fermentation. The fermented wort was distilled to collect a colourless liguid as the distillate. This distillate was neutral to litmus test, soluble in water, forms esters with acetic acid and positive to lucas test showing it to be a primary alcohol-ethanol.




Table of Contents

Title page                                                                 i

Certification                                                             ii

Dedication                                                               iii

Acknowledgement                                                    iv

Table of contents                                                     v

Abstract                                                                   vii


 Introduction                                                            1

1.1   Background of study                                                1

1.2   Statement of the problem                                4

1.3   Objective of the study                                      4

1.4   Significance of the study                                  5

1.5   Scope of study                                                 5


Literature Review                                                     6

2.1   Origin and history of yam                                6

2.2   Description of yam                                           7

2.3   Taxonomy of yam                                             7

2.4   Harvesting of yam                                            8

2.5   Nutritional composition of yam                                8

2.6   Diseases of yam                                               10

2.7   Uses/importance of yam                                  11

2.8   Alkanols                                                          12

2.9   Types of Alcohols                                             13

2.10         Description of ethanol                                     15

2.11         Properties of ethanol                                                16

2.12         Preparation of ethanol                                     17

2.13 Uses of Alkanols (ethanols)                             19


Materials and Method                                              20

3.1   Materials                                                          20

3.2   Collection of sample                                        21

3.3   Preparation of sample                                      21

3.4   Isolation of the sample                                     22

3.5   Qualitative test                                                26


Results                                                                    28

CHAPTER FIVE                     

5.1   Discussion                                                      30

5.2   Conclusion                                                      31

5.3   Recommendation                                             32

        Reference                                                                 33




1.1      Background of the study

Yams (Discorea spp) of the family Diocoreaceae are members of the flowering plant. They are monocots, related to palms, grasses and archids. Most yam species grow in the tropics and subtropics area with fairly heavy total annual rainfall, but with a definite day season. During the rainy season, they produced one or more underground tubers to store food and water through the dry season the tubers are thickened stems. Most yam plant have small flower with one plant having only male or female flower (Kay, 1987).

The tubers of most species of yam are poisonous to humans. The cultivation of most yams is very labour intensive. Cultivated yams generally do not produce seed and so tubers or pieces of tuber must be planted in prepared soil, most often in wounds to grow new plants.

Yams are nutritious food, providing carbohydrate, some protein, and mineral like phosphorus and potassium besides the use as food, yams have been symbolically associated with culture and ritualism in some parts of Africa, Asia and Latin Americas.

According to Ogbuka (2005) Ethanol can be produce from starch –containing substances like maize, cassava and yam. Ethanol is a monohydric alcohol that is colourless and flammable, it is a 2 –carbon alcohol with molecular formular CH3 CH2 OH, its empirical formular is C2H6O. An alternative notation is CH3CH2 OH which indicates that the carbon of a methyl group (CH3) is attached to the carbon of an ethylene group (CH2-) which is attached to the oxygen  of a hydroxyl group (OH). Ethanol is a colourless liquid that burns with a smokeless blue flame. It has a choking smell and a boiling point of 780c. They are characterized by the possessing of phydroxyl group (OH) as their functional group. Alcohols can be classified as primary, secondary and tertiary. The primary alcohols have only one or no alkyl group attached to the hydroxyl bonded carbon atom, the secondary alcohol contain two alkyl group attached to the hydroxyl bonded carbon atom while the tertiary alcohol contains three alkyl groups but no hydrogen attached to the hydroxyl- bonded carbon atom while the tertiary alcohol contains three alkyl groups but no hydrogen attached to the hydroxyl-bonded carbon atoms:

According to West (2007) ethanol is a principle fuel that can be used as petrol substitute for vehicles. It is a renewable energy source produced mainly by sugar fermentation process. It is used in preservation of specimen, food e.t.c and even as a raw material in the manufacturing of chemicals and pharmaceuticals like trichloromethane

1.2      Statement of the Problems

Alcohol has been known to be produced from fossile like maize, cassava, even yam tuber but there is still need to search for other sources considering the usefulness of ethanol source, hence the need for this study. Furthermore, yam peel are regarded as waste after using the main yam tuber, therefore there is need to source for alcohol in this peel which either are throw away. This study will also reduce environmental pollution which is caused by the yam peel.

1.3      Objectives of the Study

Objectives of this study include:

v To extract ethanol from yam peel

v To carry out qualitative test on the produced ethanol


1.4      Significant of the Study

The knowledge from this study will help in creating awareness to the government as well as the society at large on the need to grow more yams. Finally this study will also help the society to know that ethanol is not just present in the yam tuber alone but also in the peels (yam peels)

1.5      Scope of Study

This study is concerned with the production of ethanol using yam peel which involves

v Collection and identification of the sample

v Preparation of the sample

v Production of ethanol from the sample

v Qualitative tests on the produced ethanol.


Buyers has the right to create dispute within seven (7) days of purchase for 100% refund request when you experience issue with the file received. 

Dispute can only be created when you receive a corrupt file, a wrong file or irregularities in the table of contents and content of the file you received. shall either provide the appropriate file within 48hrs or send refund excluding your bank transaction charges. Term and Conditions are applied.

Buyers are expected to confirm that the material you are paying for is available on our website and you have selected the right material, you have also gone through the preliminary pages and it interests you before payment. DO NOT MAKE BANK PAYMENT IF YOUR TOPIC IS NOT ON THE WEBSITE.

In case of payment for a material not available on, the management of has the right to keep your money until you send a topic that is available on our website within 48 hours.

You cannot change topic after receiving material of the topic you ordered and paid for.

Ratings & Reviews


No Review Found.

To Review

To Comment