over the world till date has been a great catalyst to development in most
countries where it is sincerely practiced. This is as a result of its
principles which highly encourage development. On the other hand, trade union
in most cases thrives in such a democratic state. This by so doing gives
employers and labour that unhindered opportunity to vent their anger or
expression to the government without fear of intimidation.
system in this case being the highest level of education in any country in the
world has a major role to play in the development of the state. This is made
possible by training members of the state in areas which can be more beneficial
to the growth of the state. Labour on the other hand gathers themselves
together to form groups of like trades so as to help protect their own interest
in the course of carrying out their duties. They are called trade unions among
which we can find the academic staff union of universities (ASUU).
therefore examined the effects of Democracy and labour unrest on Nigeria
tertiary institutions using ASUU’s activities in recent times as a case study.
In the process of the investigation, the study considered the effectiveness of
the nation’s universities (which includes the federal and states owned
universities) under a democratic rule. It further reflect on the impact of the
unending labour unrest between ASUU and the federal government on the students
and the nation at large.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction 1
Background of the study 5
Statement of the problem 6
Purpose of the study 6
Objective of the study 6
Research questions 7
Research hypotheses 7
Significance of the study 8
Limitation of the study 9
Delimitation of the study 9
Definitions Of Terms 9
CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review 11
of democracy 11
development of dormancy 14
2.1.3 Types of
of democracy 16
Of Trade Union 18
2.2.2 Types of
trade union 18
union under military rule 19
union under civil rule 22
2 .3.1 Forms of
of labour unrest 26
of Labor Unrest in the Nigerian University System 28
of labour unrest on the Nigerian tertiary institutions 30
CHAPTER THREE: Methodology 33
of Study 34
of the Study 34
of data collection 35
3.7 Instrumentation 36
of Instrument 37
of the Instrument 37
of Instrument 38
of data Analysis 38
CHAPTER FOUR: Analysis
of data and interpretation of results 39
Data ANALYSIS and Interpretation 40
FIVE: Summary, Conclusion, Recommendation and Suggestions
for Further Research 55
5.1 Summary 55
5.3 Recommendations 58
for further Research 61
Appendix C 69-78
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
experience with democracy has been epileptic since 1960 when she got her
independence from the British Administration in the first of October, 1999 will
be the third attempt (i.e if the third republic of 1993 is excluded, as it was
abolished even before it started) in coming to grasp with democratic ethos.
Today, Nigeria has put behind her the ugly past, filled with many years of
military rule which resulted to tyranny and dictatorship.
has been a popular system of governance in virtually many parts of the world
today. This is based on the principles inherent in the practice among which is
the freedom of association (provided that it does not pose a threat to the
peaceful co-existence of all). Trade union on the other hand, is one of such
legal association which allows for workers to come together as one, to force
employers of labour to yield to their demands for better working conditions.
workers constitute the largest single force in industries and as such, it is
when workers come together in common action that they can conveniently change
the dominance of employers. The situation necessitates the formation of trade
union hence, there is always the need for formation of trade union.
there is always the need for labour to check the on-slaught of capital which is
a basic reason for workers to associate in trade unions.
academic staff union of universities (ASUU) is one of the many trade unions in
Nigeria. It is the combination of all Nigeria universities teachers both in the
federal and state levels. The union which was formed in 1978 was a successor to
the Nigerian Association of University Teachers which was formed 1965. ASUU’S
predecessor was basically covering academic staff in the University of Ibadan,
University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, University of
Ife (Now Obafemi Awolowo University) and University of Lagos.
recent times, history has shown that the Union (ASUU) was active in the
struggle against the military regime during the 1980’s. In 1988 the Union
organized a national strike to obtain fair wages and university autonomy. As a
result, the ASUU was proscribed on August 7, 1988 and all its property seized.
More other strike actions were embarked upon by the union. It is believed that
all the strike actions during the military era by ASUU were linked to the
struggle for democracy and in condemnation of the military despotic
the return to democracy in 1999 with the Nigerian fourth republic, the union
continued to be militant in demanding the rights of university teachers against
opposition by the government of President Olusegun Obasanjo. In July 2002, Dr.
Oladipe Fashina, National President of ASUU petitioned Justice Mustapha Akanbi
of the Independent corrupt practices commission to investigate the authorities
of the University of Ilorin for financial mismanagement and corruption.
2007, the ASUU went on strike for three months. In May 2008, the ASUU held two
one week “Warning Strike” to press a range of demands, including an improved
salary scheme and reinstatement of 49 lecturers who were dismissed many years
ago. In June 2009 the ASUU ordered its members in federal and state
universities nationwide to proceed on an indefinite strike over disagreements
with the federal governments on the agreement it reached with the union about
some years ago. After three months of strikes, in October 2009 the ASUU and
other staff unions signed a memorandum of understanding with the government and
called off the industrial action.
by all the actions and reactions of ASUU during the military era and presently
in the democratic dispensation, one will say that ASUU has been effective in
the military administration and more effective in the democratic system. This
is so because democracy as a system of government strongly supports trade
unionism. We should not also forget the fact that ASUU’s activities verses the
government has an effect on the students (undergraduates) with whom the key to
the nations development lies.
effects of ASSU’s activities vis-à-vis government loggerhead are going to be
emphasized upon. Thus, this research work will lay great emphasis on ASUU’s
activities from 1999 to 2010 with respect to the effects of its actions on
tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Also, greater emphases will be laid on the
students who happen to be the sole reason why these higher institutions were
created in order to foster the development of human capital.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
the change of the system of government to democracy in Nigeria, which is a
world wide system of government today, trade union has been pro-active, as they
are now unchained from their shackles to carry out their functions. In carrying
out these functions, a method in most time is being adopted to give a speedy
response to their demands (i.e through strike).
view of this, this project work looks at graduates underperformance in the
labour market which are caused by a host of factors. It also highlights the
increase rate of crime among undergraduates.
still, the unending strike actions embarked upon by ASUU from the fourth
republic (1999) to the sixth republic (2010) was also emphasized upon which was
believed to be a bane of poor performance of graduates in the labour market and
high level of brain drain in the nation.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study was to:-
the effects of ASUU strike actions on student performance.
out if the increase in crime rate among undergraduates can be linked to the
many months of strike actions.
the relationship between the effectiveness of ASUU during democratic rule and
suggestions and recommendation for arresting the decline in the standard of
education at the tertiary level.
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
aim and objective of this study was to critically evaluate democracy and labour
unrest as they affect the tertiary institutions of learning in Nigeria with
reference to the academic staff union of universities (ASUU) and how its union
activities can affect, positively or negatively, the standard of education in
the Ivory tower (tertiary institution).
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
order to provide the required empirical data for this study, the following
research questions were considered to validate recommendation:-
What are the causes of graduates
underperformance in the labour market?
What causes the increase rate of crime
How has the strike encouraged
prostitution and unwanted pregnancy among female students?
What are the root causes of the unending
strike actions embarked upon by ASUU from 1999 to 2010?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
following hypotheses were of immense importance in researching the above
Lecturers labour unrest will not have significant effects on graduates
performance in the labour markets.
ASUU incessant strike will not increase the rate of crime among universities
ASUU strike will not encourage prostitution and unwanted pregnancy among female
There is no relationship between ASUU unending labour unrest and democracy.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
result of this study would improve the effectiveness of universities’
contributions to the development of Nigeria. This would be made possible by
producing pro-active university graduates who are the major catalyst for the
development of any nation.
since education is a serious business which needs serious mind to handle; this
work would help profer solution to the incessant industrial actions that have
been seen as a norm in Nigerian tertiary institutions.
still, research has shown that one of the key contributors to the brain drain
syndrome among lecturers is the issue of strikes and government bad policies.
This work will help create an awareness to this beast (brain drain) that has
made many good lecturers and students leave the shores of our country in
pursuits of better life in the Westerns World, thereby profer solution to it.
is hoped that the findings of this study would provoke further research in the
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
the case usually are, there are certain limitations the researcher was faced
with in the course of this work. These constraints were finance, time and
materials to work on the research work.
1.9 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
study focused mainly on ASUU labour unrest during the fourth to sixth republic
and how their actions have affected university students negatively or
positively. In that vein, the scope of this work covers Lagos States University
(LASU) chapter of ASUU.
1.10 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
clarification is a major requirement for any scientific or empirical research,
it lays the basis for outright understanding for major concepts that will be used,
this is because concepts are the “building block” of any given discipline.
The following concepts
therefore need operational clarification:-
Oshiomhole (2000) sees democracy as an imperative necessity for sustaining an
enduring national development and stability. In other words, democracy is not
all about periodic elections; it must be sustained through active participation
for it to survive.
UNREST: Labour unrest is a term used by employers or those
generally in the business community to describe strike actions. This is a
period when employees refuse to work in order to press on their demands from
UNION: According to T.M Yesufu (1965), trade union is an
organization of employee for the promotion and defence of the terms and
condition of employment of their members including the standard of living.