study is based on effectiveness of strategic marketing and management on the
sustenance of growth in Nigerian tertiary institutions (a case study of Lagos
state university The study critically look into the definition of pricing
strategy, the evolution of growth, process of pricing strategy, economic effect
of growth, different marketing strategy and the effects of marketing strategy
on consumer behaviour.
retrench in the course of data gathering utilized the primary source of data
collection and use of descriptive statistic to analyse the data collected. The
study found out that pricing strategy gives positive image to business and has
positive impact on the consumer’s buying behaviour. Also, the study found out
that marketing strategy is an effective device for marketing.
on the basis of the findings the study recommends that marketing strategy
should be of high quality and the message should be directed. The quality of
some price production does encourage the consumer and often attract their a
Also, the right medium should be used for marketing strategy.
TITLE PAGE I
TABLE OF CONTENTS VI
1.1 BACKGROUIND OF THE STUDY 1
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS 2
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION 2
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 3
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES 3
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 4
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 4
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS 5
1.10 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION IN NIGERIA: A CONCEPTUALISATION 5
TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 INTRODUCTION 8
2.1 THE CONCEPT OF MARKETING 8
2.2 STRATEGIC MARKETING MANAGEMENT 10
2.3 RATIONALE FOR MARKETING 12
2.4 EDUCATIONAL MARKETING: A CONCEPTUALIZATION 14
2.5 THE MARKET-ORIENTED ENTREPRENEURIAL UNIVERSITY 17
2.6 ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE MARKETING OF HIGHER EDUCATION24
2.7 TOWARDS BRAND (REPUTATION) MANAGEMENT 30
2.8 BENEFITS OF OWNING A COMPELLING BRAND 31
2.9 BRANDING DEVELOPMENTS IN HIGHER EDUCATION 32
2.10 PERCEIVED RISK IN HIGHER EDUCATION BRAND MANAGEMIENT34
2.11 CHALLENGES AND PRITFALLS IN HIGHER EDUCATION
THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN 41
3.2 POPULATION OF THE STUDY 41
3.3 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING PROCEDUCE 41
3.4 DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT 42
3.5 ADMINISTRATION OF DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT 42
3.6 RELIABILITY OF INSTRUMENT 43
3.7 VALIDITY OF INSTRUMENT 43
3.8 PROCEDURE FOR DATA ANALYSIS 43
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
OF SAMPLES 44
OF STATEMENT (INDEPENDENT VARIABLES) 47
4.3 TESTING OF HYPOTHESES AND INTERPRETATION 65
4.4 DISCUSSION OF THE HYPOTHESES TESTED 69
FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR
5.0 INTRODUCTION 70
5.2 FINDINGS 71
5.3 CONCLUSIONS 72
5.4 RECOMMENDATIONS 72
5.5 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES 74
1.1 BACKGROUIND OF THE
implication of marketing is that even though “customer orientation (a derivative-
of marketing concept) has become a familiar slogan, with pride of place in the
strategy statements of many organizations,” the god of actually implementing
the customer orientation has continually been deceptively innocuous” (Nwankwo,
1995). The implication is that marketing is often restricted and viewed- from
them. prison of commercial lenses.
situation has led pessimists of educational market, in- particular, to argue
that applying marketing to educational issues is unethical, part of the-jr fear
being that merit may be compromised for commercial gains. Such cynicisms
emanate from the narrow conceptualization- accorded to marketing by those
dismissing it as nothing but a profiteering instrument. However, marketing is
far being that, rather, it has long been recognized as an instrument for
organizational renewal-: efficient re-source allocation; and sustaining new
market though product, service- and process innovation.
is consistent with the believe that universities are currently perceived as
typical business—like enterprises, where the student as a consumer seeks a
business—like relationship with the producer (Lecturer) who delivers the
knowledge, skills and competencies they want (Newton,2002.) University marketization
infuses customer need into the following this tradition, informed opinion in
the literature now agrees that knowledge and ideas which are not chandelled to
solve problems are worthless (Rokpe, 1998) it in the context that this paper
advocates for a market oriented university structure in Nigeria.
subsequent broadening of the concept, marketing which nightly brought into
context the foundational role of marketing as a social process (Kotler and Lay,
1969), has provided the desired conceptual robustness that captures the role
marketing within the human society. Admittedly, early works (Levi, 1960; Kotler
and Levy, 1976; Hunt, 1 976) in the area of broadening, the scope of the
marketing concept have been in valuable. However, despite this conceptual boarding,
marketing in the context of university management has continued to receive
limited attention in Nigeria. Paradoxically, existing literature (Drucker 1958;
Bayer, 1968, Bakar, 1996, Onah, 2000; Oguwo, 2003, 20005a) has continued to
direct attention to the fact feet that understood to direct attention to the
feel that underdeveloped and developing economics could benefits from modern
marketing in solving their development from the modem marketing in solving
their university management.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
date limited research has, been directed at linking university management to
the marketing process in Nigeria. Public universities in Nigeria are known to
be overly state dependence nether than market dependence which have stifle the
growth and development of these higher institutions as centre of excellence.
Tertiary institutions do not believe in the adoption of strategic marketing
management as a tool of repositioning the institutions for national development
which has impeded the growth of the tertiary institutions.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION
relevant research questions that are answered in this study are as follows:
is marketing in general form?
Marketing ideas be applied to Tertiary Education?
can the Tertiary institutions benefits from the strategic marketing management.
can the Tertiary institutions shifts from the overly state dependence to market
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE
objectives of the study include the following.
To find out how marketing ideas can be
applied to education.
To scrutinize to what extend has the
Tertiary institutions engage in the market oriented approach.
To find out the extent to which the
Tertiary institutions have started inculcating marketing concepts into the
management of the citadel of learning.
To determine the importance of strategic
marketing management in the day to day mining of an organisation in which
Tertiary institutions is not exempted.
To examine the environment of university
management in Nigeria with a view identifying problem areas that could benefits
from the marketing concept.
Propose market oriented as a strategic
choice for effective and efficient management of Nigerian Tertiary
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
study will attempts to and raise the following hypothesis:
The Tertiary institutions have not adopt the market oriented concept as
tool of strategic management to achieve growth.
H1: The Tertiary institutions have adopted the
market oriented concept as a tool of strategic management to achieve growth.
H0: The Tertiary institutions are
not market oriented entrepreneurial institutions.
H1: The Tertiary
institutions are market oriented entrepreneurial institutions.
H0: The use of marketing mix is not
an effective tools of management in the growth of Tertiary institutions.
H1: Marketing mix
is an effective tools of management which promote growth in Tertiary
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE
study will go a long way in necessitating a proactive stance on maximizing the
appeal of the institutional brand so as to recruit desirable students and
ensure that the institution’s Strategic goals are achieved. It will also ensure
that institutional brand has the effect of reducing perceived risk for consumer
(the students) and allowing the higher institution a degree of stability in the
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
research work covers the effectiveness of Strategic marketing management on the
Sustenance of growth in Nigeria tertiary institutions. Since it is not possible
to visit every tertiary institution in Nigeria, the study was limited to only
Lagos State University which is one of the Tertiary institutions in Lagos State
1.8 DELIMILTATION OF STUDY
Every research endeavour is bedeviled with
one constraint or the other of which this study is not an exception. Therefore,
this Study has the following limitations.
Inadequately of relevant materials
(Journals, Articles and Books) on the research topic which makes it impossible
to do an indept review of relate writings.
Time and also financial constraints also
played it part in making the study not as robust as expected.
The Study itself covers only one tertiary
institution in Nigeria out of 72 public universities and 45 private
universities. Therefore the findings made in this study cannot be generalized
for all the universities in Nigeria.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Marketing:- Deals with identifying and
meeting human and social needs.
Strategic Management:- It consist of a
spies of steps which are followed relatively and continuously to keep and
organisation appropriately matched to its operating environment.
Marketing Oriented:- Is the implementation
of the Marketing concept within the organisation.
Marketing Mix:- is a set of flour
decisions which need to be taken before launching any new product: they
include; product, price, place and promotion.
1.10 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION
IN NIGERIA: A CONTEXTUALISATION
is the most populous country in Africa and accounts for about 25 percent of SSA
population its first university college offered degree jointly with the
university of London Clark and Sedgwick (2004). A fully fledged university. The
University of Nigeria at Nsukka- was established in 1960 and between 1961 arid
1970, five more universities were added. These universities were fully funded
by federal government.
Nigeria’s independence from Britain in 1960, the government of the day
spontaneously embraced he as a veritable tool for development. This policy
thrust found justification and legitimacy m the general belief their economic
and social development; and that university education is a particularly
important in creating such a knowledge driven society and economy (Saint er al:
2004): thus He was rightly situated as a critical and highly sensitive
investment area, which represented the most common denominator of development
and equality of life. Ever since Nigeria (and indeed the rest of SSA) promoted
HE as a credible strategic choice for development. This understanding formed
the basis for the 1985 and 1987 meetings of these governments in Mbabane and
Harare respectively (Association of African Universities (AAU) 1985, 1987).
Which fitted into the Lagos plan action for Economic Development of Africa:
1980—2000 (Organisation of Africa Unity (OAU), 2001) and Africa’s priority
programme for economic recovery 1986—1990 (OAU) 1985) in its most recent
document reiterated their belief in the role of HE is eradicating poverty and
fostering sustainable growth and development of the region. in particular as
part of its action plan to bridge the education gap in Africa and NEPAD
document accepts the strengthening of universities across Africa as a strategy
fostering development in the region. Given these orthodoxies, African
government under took the project of university financing as a strategic choice
for natural development. Unfortunately in Nigeria (and perhaps some others in
SSA) have been affected by the existing perennials problems in universities
management in the region problems their include: poor finding: inefficiency
resulting from dilapidated teaching and learning infrastructure equality and
governance (Saint el al: 2004). in the case of Nigeria, this has a serious
impact on the productivity of the educational sector reflected in the low
number of Nigerians in scientific and technological research positions and
publications and increasing number of Nigerians seeking. admission to universities
overseas, it has been reported that Nigeria has 15 scientists and engineers
that are engaged in research and development per million persons: ampared to
168 in Brazil 459 in China, 158 in India, and 4103 in the United stares (World
Bank, 2002). The number of scientific publications has dropped from 1062 in
1981 to 711 in 1995. Compared to 3413 in South Africa, 14833 in India, 310 in
Indonesia and 5440 in Brazil (Task force, 2000, as cited in saint et al: 2004)
The problem of under-finding has brought with it numerous problems that are
challenging the continued legitimacy of the universities as centres of
excellence for research and researching. This development coupled with the
absence of crucial infrastructure and requisite man power has impeded the healthy
development of He in Nigeria, a situation Ogum (2001,) describes as “the
learning ivory tower” Osisioma (2006,) captures the effects of the extremely
excessive control of universities in Nigeria thus:
legacy of government in the running of these institutions of higher education
has been a mixed bag of the good, the bad and the ugly with government
participation in education, came same ignoble development. Inconsistent
policies and poorly articulated plans intruded upon the system. Government
intervention in the day – to- day administration of these institutions, often
displaced academic and professional consideration with other mundane
contemplations: over ambitious expansion in student population without a
commensurate increase in facilities.
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