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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00005430

No of Pages: 90

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The study examines the effect of financial incentives on staff productivity in Niyya foods Kaduna. The research question that guided the study were: Is Niyya Food remuneration based on incentive scheme? What kind of financial incentive does Niyya Food give to its works and what are the effect on what workers? What kind of non financial incentives does Niyya Food use to boost workers productivity? What are the constraints militating against Niyya Food incentive schemes and how can it be overcome?A survey method was used for this study. The population  consisted of all Staff of Niyya Food Kaduna. Out of 158 persons, a  sample size of 70 was drawn from the total population using the stratified random sampling technique. A questionnaire developed by the researcher based on likert 5-point scale was used for the study. Mean scores was used to analyse the data based on the research questions. The research result shows that Niyya Food incentive scheme does not enhance  workers performance because, it does not take into cognizance in it remuneration and do  not even evaluate or appraisal workers  performance.It was recommended that  Other non financial incentives like lectures, seminar, symposium as well as Recreational facilities, such as club with sporting facilities, entry bar and other recreational facility that would help staff unwind after work should be designed and adopted. This will facilitate efficiency and increase productivity in Niyya Food.




Title Page                                                                                                              i

Declaration                                                                                                            ii

Certification                                                                                                                    iii

Approval Page                                                                                                      iv

Dedication page                                                                                                    v

Acknowledgement                                                                                                vi

Table of Content                                                                                                  vii

Abstract                                                                                                                 ix




1.1         Background to the Study                                                                                     1

1.2         Statement of the Problem                                                                                    3

1.3     Objectives of the Study                                                                             4

1.4     Significance of the Study                                                                                    4

1.5     Research Questions                                                                                   5

1.6     Scope of the Study                                                                                               5

1.7     Definition of key Term                                                                             6




2.1     Introduction                                                                                                          8

2.2     Conceptual Framework                                                                             8

2.2.1  The Concept of Financial and Non Financial Incentives                       8

2.2.2  Concept of Employee Performance                                                         11

2.2.3  Concept of Performance Incentives in Workplace                                12

2.2.4  The Nexus between Incentives and Productivity                                   13

2.3     Theoretical Framework                                                                             16

2.3.1  The Evolution of Motivational Concepts                                               17

2.3.2  Process Theories of Motivation                                                                          24

2.3.3  Need Theories                                                                                            29

2.3.4  Abraham Maslow Theory                                                                         29

2.3.5  Murray’s Manifest Needs Theory                                                            33

2.3.6  Herzberg, and his Two-Factory Theory                                                  36

2.3.7  Evaluation of the Motivational Theories Reviewed                                         39

2.4     Empirical Literature                                                                                   40

2.4.1  The Effect of Financial and Non Financial Incentive to the Employee Performance                                                                                                          40

2.4.2  Impact of Incentive on Employee’s Motivation                                     54

2.5     Summary                                                                                                    58




3.1     Introduction                                                                                                          60

3.2     Population and Sample Size of the Study                                               60

3.3     Source of Data Collection                                                                         61

3.4     Method of Data Collection                                                                       61

3.5     Method of Data Analysis                                                                                     62

3.6     Summary                                                                                                    62




4.1     Introduction                                                                                                          63

4.2     Analysis of Respondent’s Demographic Variables                                63

4.3     Data Analysis                                                                                             66

4.4     Summary of Findings                                                                                73

4.5     Discussion of Findings                                                                             74



5.1     Summary                                                                                                    76

5.2     Conclusion                                                                                                 77

5.3     Recommendations                                                                                     77

Bibliography                                                                                              79

Appendix I                                                                                                 82

Appendix II                                                                                                83





1.1     Background to the Study

All organizations are concerned with what should be done to achieve high level of productivity through staff motivation using the right kind of incentive. Most organizations in the past have been using financial incentives but their workers are still agitating for increment in salaries. Consequently the effect of non financial incentive becomes a burning issue in human resource management (Okoh, 2008).

The issue of adequate motivation and consequently workers productivity is a product of a person’s set up of needs, goals, drive and experience. By implication, this means that factors which govern motivation, job satisfaction, workers productivity and attitude to work differ from one society to another.

However, the entire issue of the implication of adequate motivation on workers productivity is embedded in the various theories of motivation.

People are motivated by various factors at different times, according to

Wilkinson et al, the first factor is the combination of the individual perceptions of the expectations other people have of them, and their own expectations of themselves. This happens because people come into work situations with various expectations.


People work together in large organisations like bank, factory where they are expected to follow orders, which they may not approve of. In addition, they may have to obey instruction from supervisors they had no hand in selecting. This is the type of situation where the worker might have no opportunity for self-expression. The basic question that now arises, relates to how to create a situation in which workers can satisfy their individual needs while working towards organisational goals. How can workers in corporate organisation in Nigeria who’s workers feel that their salaries are low when compared with their contemporaries in other organisation?


As such a lot of theoretical concept, principles and techniques of management have evolved in response to these challenges/ but most scholars suggest that more conceptual and empirical work is required to show the link between financial and non financial incentive and staff productivity is still vague but some studies have documented in their work that financial incentive is readily perceived as having a high instrumental value that makes putting forth extra effort worthwhile and its has a long term effect in terms of labour turnover rate because of comparative value for alternative employment while non financial incentive has less initial impact as the pragmatics of financial gain, they seem to have a steady, sustainable impact(Egbe,2008).

Despite the growing body of literature and empirical study on the effect of  non financial incentive on workers productivity, the subject matter still remains complex. Hence, the need to undertake a survey on the effect of   non monetary incentives on staff productivity in Niyya food and drinks company Ltd Kaduna.


1.2     Statement of the Problem

Most organizations in Nigeria are constraint with the problem of using non performance based element like salaries to compensate it staff as against performance-related pay structure which has hamper productivity because it does not make worker put in extra effort in their work. This is so because their compensation is not based on incentive schemes that elicit additional effort of workers sequel to unfriendly government legislation on wages clause and bureaucratic inefficiency. Hence the need for the research to examine the effect of  non monetary incentive on employee productivity in Niyya Food and drinks Ltd Kaduna.



1.3     Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to examine the effect of non monetary incentive on staff of Niyya food and drinks Kaduna. Other Specific objectives are to:

i.              Assess whether staff remuneration is based on incentive schemes that motivate them.

ii.            Examine all financial incentives given to staff and their effect on worker productivity.

iii.          Identify non financial incentives used in boosting staff productivity.

iv.           Evaluate out the constraints militating against incentive scheme Niyya Food and drinks and make recommendations to the identified problems.


1.4     Significance of the Study

This study brings to light the effect of non monetary incentives on staff performance in organization. The study may therefore be beneficial to the organization understudy in area of policy formulations as regard staff incentive schemes and remuneration.

To education, the study may contribute to already existing knowledge on the effect of financial and non financial incentives on workers’ performance.

Finally, to those in academics and human resource researches, the study may serve as a springboard for further investigations.

1.5     Research Questions

This study  provide answers to the following research questions:

i.              Is Niyya Food and drinks limited’s remuneration based on incentive scheme that motivate staff performance?

ii.            What kind of financial incentive do Niyya food and drinks give to its workers and what are their effect on workers productivity?

iii.          What kind of non financial incentive do Niyya food and drinks use to boost workers productivity?

iv.           What are the constraints militating against Niyya Food and drinks incentive scheme and how can these constraints be overcome?


1.6     Scope of the Study

The study covers an empirical investigation of the effect of  non monetary motivation on staff productivity in Niyya Food and drinks. The main scope and time frame for this investigation covers Niyya Food and drinks incentive schemes from 2006-2011.




1.7     Definition of key Term

The key terms below were used in this study

Financial Incentives: Monetary reward or compensation use to motivate workers.      

Non Financial Incentives: Other incentives apart from monetary rewards.

Performance Incentive: Rewards that motivates worker to put in more efforts.

Productivity: The rate at which employee work and their yield in their organization.

Adequate Motivation: These are factors (familiarity, concern and driving

force), which exist or are provided in a work situation either physically or

psychologically which determine the input and productivity level of the worker.

Implication of Motivation: The term could be defined as the work disposition of an employee, which affects the mode of doing his work.

Intimacy: Intimacy or Familiarity could be described as the feeling of warmth and friendliness based on interpersonal relationship among people.

Consideration: Consideration or Concern refers to a situation where both their colleagues and managers treat staffs with understanding. In this case, there is both a personal and human touch in dealing with workers,

Thrust: Thrust or driving force deals with leadership by example as a means of motivating subordinates. Leadership in this context takes personal interest in staff while also displaying a high degree of professional competence and dynamic leadership qualities.

Morale: Moral refers to staff emotional and mental level of zeal.

Productivity: Productivity is the relationship between the amount of one or more inputs and the amount of outputs from a clearly identified process.

Permanent Staff: Permanent staff refers to those experienced member of staff who irrespective of their ages have been working for a minimum period of five years

Contract Staff: Members of staff who irrespective of their academic

accomplishments and status are  regarded as adhoc staff.

Management Staff: Management staff refers to those member of staff who

irrespective of their ages have attain grade level 6 and above.

Training: The process of increasing knowledge and skills of staffs in doing their job.

Development: The process of adding to the skills of workers, improving their general knowledge and altering their attitudes.

Productivity: A rate at which workers produce goods or services.

Human capital: Workers’ skills and abilities considered as resources to business.

H. R. M: An acronym for human resource management.

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