This research study examines the effect of motivation on employees’ productivity with focus on First Bank of Nigeria Plc. The study employed descriptive design and survey research design. Data were garnered mainly by primary source with the use well-structured questionnaire. The population for this study is made up the entire staff of First Bank Plc, Head Quarters, Victoria Island and a sample of one hundred (100) was drawn from the staff and management.
The researcher used simple random sampling technique in the selection of sample. The instrument used for data collection for in this study is the questionnaire, the questionnaires were self-administered. The statistical Techniques used in analyzing the data collected is Chi-Square analysis.
The findings showed that Compensation in First Bank impact employees’ performance. It also revealed that promotion has effect on employees’ productivity, and training and career development affects the level of efficiency of the employees. The findings finally proof employee well-being has impact on the level of effectiveness of the employees
Based on the research findings, the researcher made some recommendations, among which are: Managements must ensure employees are adequately motivated. Employee well-being should be given due consideration and health and well-being programs should be organized to cater for the needs and welfare of employees. Also, management should encourage interpersonal relations amongst co-workers and their managers to promote a sense of belonging and unity amongst staff. Also managers should ensure employees are involved in decision making processes and given a chance to air their views.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of Problems 2
1.3 Objectives of Study 3
1.4 Research Questions 3
1.5 Research Hypotheses 4
1.6 Significance of the Study 4
1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study 5
1.8 Justification of the Study 5
1.9 Definition of Terms 6
1.10 Plan of Study 6
2.0 Preamble 8
2.1 Conceptual Framework 8
2.1.1 Motivation 8
2.1.2 Types of Motivation 9
2.1.3 Intrinsic Motivational Factors 11
220.127.116.11 Employee Well-being 11
18.104.22.168 Relationship with Co-workers 12
22.214.171.124 Relationship with Managers 14
2.1.4 Extrinsic Motivational Factors 16
126.96.36.199 Work Environment 16
188.8.131.52 Compensation 17
184.108.40.206 Training and Career Development 18
2.1.4 Extrinsic Motivational Factors 16
220.127.116.11 Work Environment 16
18.104.22.168 Compensation 17
22.214.171.124 Training and Career Development 18
2.1.5 Factors Affecting Motivation 20
2.1.6 Productivity 21
126.96.36.199 Employee Productivity 22
188.8.131.52 Effectiveness 23
184.108.40.206 Efficiency 23
2.1.7 The Nexus between Motivation and Productivity 23
2.2 Theoretical Framework 25
2.2.1 Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory 25
2.2.2 Frederick Herzberg Two-Factor Theory 31
2.2.3 Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory 35
2.3 Empirical Framework 41
2.4 Gaps in Literature 43
2.5 Summary of the Chapter 44
3.0 Preamble 46
3.1 Research Design 46
3.2 Population of the Study 46
3.3 Sampling Procedure and Sample Size 47
3.4 Data Collection Instrument and Validity 47
3.5 Method of Data Presentation and Analysis 48
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.0 Preamble 49
4.1 Response to Respondents’ Personal Information 49
4.2 Response to the Problem Areas 51
4.3 Testing and Interpretation of the Hypotheses. 61
4.3.1 Test of Hypothesis One 61
4.3.2 Test of Hypothesis Two 64
4.3.3 Test of Hypothesis Three 66
4.3.4 Test of Hypothesis Four 69
4.4 Discussion of Findings 71
SUMMARY, FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS
5.1 Introduction 72
5.2 Summary of the Work 72
5.3 Conclusions 73
5.4 Recommendations 73
5.5 Suggestions for Further Studies 75
APPENDIX: QUESTIONNAIRE 83
1.1 Background to the Study
One of the major concerns companies have to focused on, is improving workers’ productivity, Which is one of the job performance measures. Performance can also be described as the means through which organizational member contribute to achieve the objective of the organization.
On the other hand when you expect little from employees they will give you low performance in return, as set put - to fail syndrome. Many people feel that they are not recognized or appreciated by their employees for their hand work and in turn develop decreased motivation. Lack of communication and feedback from employer cause employees to feel overlooked and inhibits them from performing to the best of their ability.
Employee motivation is one of the strategies of managers to enhance effective job performance among worker in organization. Motivation as a basic psychological process is the management process of influencing behaviour based on the knowledge of what make people think. Luthans (1998) asserts that motivation is the process that Grouses energizes, directs, and sustains behaviours and performance.
That is the process of stimulating people to action and to achieve a desired task. One way of stimulating people to employ effective motivation, which makes workers more satisfied with and committed to their jobs. .
Salary should not be the only motivator, there are other incentives which can also serve as motivator. However in order to observe an effective work performance in an organization, motivation may not be only key factor as put by Luthans (1998).
Generally most businesses, organizations and their managers are faced with numerous challenges. One of such challenges is in the area of management which refers to the utilization of resources effectively and efficiently in order to achieve an organizations goals and objectives. Some of these managerial challenges are obvious in matters concerning employees such as reimbursement, recruitment, performance management, training and career development, health and safety, benefits, motivation and administration amongst others. The human resource is the most vital of all resources among other factors of production and the human capital is what distinguishes one organization from the other (Maimuna & Rashad, 2013). Therefore, for organizations to survive and remain relevant and competitive, it is essential for them to be able to entice and maintain efficient and effective employees in a bid to enhance productivity (Sunia, 2014). This study however is centered on the aspect of motivation and focuses on the effects of employee motivation on organizational productivity using First Bank Plc as case study.
1.2 Statement of Problems
Rewards might not give a desired result, human beings (employees) are so unpredictable as they might not really attach much importance or see nothing motivating in the benefits scheme in terms of administration which makes it very expensive to operate. The implication of these to employees is of increasing exposure monetized society, raising education and wider contact among people resulting from the break-up of artificial barrier was to shift aspirations to a more satisfying work experience, greater control over the organization of work, greater opportunities for personnel department and wider scope in exercise of initiatives.
Most businesses and organizations especially have failed to recognize the importance of motivation as a concept be it intrinsic such as employee well-being, relationship with co-workers, relationship with managers, organizational policies etc. or extrinsic such as training and career development, good working conditions, compensation, promotion amongst other factors that enhance or improve employee performance as well as organizational productivity levels.
This in turn has continued to represent major managerial concerns for decades as employee productivity levels has relatively declined which has been acknowledged as a subject of growing concern in the aspect of business and management research (Akerele, 2001). Although a lot of factors may also be responsible or even cause a decline in productivity such as poor strategic and structural changes in decisions and executions, lack of infrastructure, leadership styles and organizational culture amongst others. Contemporary investigations that connects the concept of workforce motivation and productivity has laid an emphasis on employee perspective, needs and expectations as factors affecting their performance and productivity levels respectively. As such investigating those factors of importance to employees in the discharge of their duties at work has taken a new dimension.
Motivation through factors such as employee wellbeing, adequate compensation, promotion, good relationships with co-workers and relationships with managers can enhance an employee’s level of effectiveness and efficiency in the workplace. This is because good relationships with coworkers promote unity and gives the employee a sense of belonging and acceptance which in turn boosts employee performance and productivity levels. Employees who enjoy such relationships both within and outside the work environment tend to be more effective and efficient as such very productive in discharging their duties. Therefore organizations should promote harmony amongst employees by organizing social functions in a bid to bring employees together (Jibowo, 2007).
Therefore an organization’s best strategy is to provide suitable work environs that allow their workforce to meet or exceed expectations as well as offer a range of motivators to improve enthusiasm, performance and productivity levels.
Specifically, the refusal of work organization to recognize the motivating factors in industrial production through greater motivational tools tends to create several human problem in this setting.
1.3 Objectives of Study
The broad objective of this research is to examine the effect of motivation on employees productivity with reference to First Bank Plc. Specific objectives are:
- To examine the extent to which compensation in First Bank Plc impact on their employees’ performance
- To evaluate the impact of promotion on employees’ productivity in First Bank of Nigeria Plc.
- Examine the effect of training and career development on the level of efficiency of the employees
- Determine the effect of employee well-being on the level of effectiveness of the employees.
1.4 Research Questions
Supporting the research objectives set out above, the following questions would be advanced and answered.
- To what extent does compensation in First Bank Plc impact employees’ performance?
- What effect does promotion has on employees’ productivity in First Bank of Nigeria Plc?
- How does training and career development affect the level of efficiency of the employees?
- Do employee well-being have impact on the level of effectiveness of the employees?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
To provide answer to the above research questions, the following proposed research hypotheses are tentatively be postulated.
Ho Compensation in First Bank Plc does not impact employees’ performance
H1 Compensation in First Bank impact employees’ performance
Ho Promotion has no effect on employees’ productivity in First Bank of Nigeria Plc.
H1 Promotion has effect on employees’ productivity in First Bank of Nigeria Plc
Ho Training and career development does not affect the level of efficiency of the employees
H1 Training and career development affects the level of efficiency of the employees
Ho Employee well-being has no impact on the level of effectiveness of the employees
H1 Employee well-being has impact on the level of effectiveness of the employees
1.6 Significance of the Study
For this study not to be an effort in futility, it has to be useful to a number of people and institutions among which are;
i. Organizations: The aim of this study is that the outcomes, results or findings should be beneficial to business owners, managers and organizations especially in the locality where this study is being conducted. This is to enable them understand the concept of motivation and its effect on productivity. It also gives an insight to managers and business owners on the importance of knowing their employees and ensuring adequate motivation in their organizations.
ii. Research Institutions: This study is also relevant to research bodies and institutions in the nation as a whole because findings would also be relevant to students and users of information in conducting further research in areas similar to this study.
iii. Government Agencies: This research is also of paramount importance because it would aid government agencies in making and implementing policies that would enhance the stability, growth and development of businesses throughout the region in matters concerning organizational productivity by seeking ways ensure that employees are adequately motivated in their various organizations thereby increasing overall productivity and performance levels.
1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study
The scope of this study is limited to First Bank of Nigeria Plc. This study examines employee motivation and its resulting effects on the organization’s productivity levels.
Wide research of this nature cannot be carried out without some constrains. The constrains that are envisaged to pose limitation to this research work include; shortage of time, lack of finance, uncooperative respondents, non-knowledgeable respondents, respondents’ bias in answering questions, inaccessibility to information termed confidential, inaccessibility of respondents and no response from some respondents.
1.8 Justification of the Study
Employees changes job basically for a better welfare and job satisfaction. Motivating employees is as important as the job itself and once it’s not strategically in place, productivity is loss. Hence there is need to examine what motivates employees to be focus and productive.
The banking industry is being considered because of the population of employees in the industry and many Nigerians show interest in banking jobs. First Bank of Nigeria Plc was selected because it’s one of the leading banks in the industry.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Motivation: refers to what stimulates and guides human behaviors and how these behaviors are sustained to attain a specific goal.
Employees: Employees are people who are hired working under contract in an organization, they are referred to as the workforce of an organization.
Productivity: A summary measure of the quantity and quality of work performance, with resource deployment taken into account. It can be measured at individual, group or organizational levels.
Employee Productivity: is the rate at which employees effectively and efficiently discharge their duties.
Organizational Productivity: A measure of how efficiently and effectively managers use resources to achieve organizational goals.
Effectiveness: refers to a measure of how well workers productivity levels meet set goals and objectives of the organization.
Employee Effectiveness: is a qualitative characteristic that indicates the extent to which job related issues are addressed and the magnitude at which predetermined goals and objectives are achieved by an employee.
Efficiency: can be derived from the relationship between inputs and outputs, and refers principally to the degree at which outputs are realized while minimizing costs associated with production.
Employee Efficiency: refers to the ability of an employee to do what is actually produced or performed with the same consumption of resources
1.10 Plan of Study
This study is divided into five chapters;
Chapter one comprises of the Background of the study, Statement of the problem, Objectives of the study, Research questions, research hypotheses, Significance of the study, and organization of the study.
Chapter two deals with the Literature Review and the theoretical framework. This include the Conceptual framework which defines the major concepts of the research, Theoretical framework which states the postulated theories that are related to the research, Empirical framework which summarises related works of researchers and finally the Gaps of the study that identifies the lapses in the existing literature.
Chapter three focuses on the research methodology. That is the procedures for which the data will be garnered till how it is analyesed. This includes the research design, Population of the Study, Sampling Technique and Sample Size, Data Collection Instrument and Validation, Methods of Data Analysis and problems encountered in the field.
Chapter four discusses the presentation and analysis of data. This show the method in which the data collected are presented using the descriptive statistical tool, and the testing of the hypotheses formulated. This include, Introduction, presentation of data, analysis of data, test of hypotheses and Discussion of results.
Chapter five describes the Summary, Recommendations, Conclusion of the study and suggestions for further study.