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Product Code: 00004932

No of Pages: 61

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The study examined the Effect of Computer Graphics in Junior Secondary School Students’ Academic Achievement in Social Studies in Lagos State. Three research question and two null hypotheses were drawn to guide the study. Related literatures were reviewed after the conceptual framework on the major variables of the study. A quasi experimental research design involving pretest and posttest was used for the study. The population consisted of 80 JSS2 students. Purposive sampling techniques was applied to select the samples of 1 subject made up of 60 males 20 females students from two intact classes to form the control and experimental groups. The instruments used for data collection were Graphics Media Learning Package Social Studies (GMIPSOS), and Computer Graphics Achievement Test (CGAT) Mean and standard Deviation T-test, frequently, descriptive statistics were used, 0.5 were used to test the research question and hypotheses using computer graphics learning package for social studies (CGLP). Finding from the study revealed that: there was significant difference in the mean score of experimental and control group in favour of the experimental group. There was significance difference in the mean scores of rural and urban students exposed to computer graphics learning media and there was no significance in the mean scores of male and female social students students exposed to computer graphics. The study recommended among others, that computer graphics should be used for teaching both concrete and abstract concepts to students at Junior Secondary School Level.






Tittle                                                                                                                                               i                                                                                                     

Declaration                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ii                                                                                                              

Certification                                                                                                                                    iii                                                                                                           

Dedication                                                                                                                                       iv                                                                                                                                                                                               

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                          v                                                                                    

Abstract                                                                                                                                          vi                                                                                                                  

Table of Content                                                                                                                             vii                                                                                                     


1.1 Background to the study                                                                                                           1          

1.2 Statement of the Problem                                                                                                          4                                                                                               

1.3 Purpose of the Study                                                                                                                 4         

1.4 Research Question                                                                                                                     5       

1.5 Hypothesis                                                                                                                                   5                                                                                

1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study                                                                                            5        

1.7 Significance of the Study                                                                                                                      5         

1.8 Operational Definition of Term                                                                                                   6      


2.1 Introduction                                                                                                                                 8

2.2 Theoretical Framework                                                                                                                 8

2.3 Conceptual Framework                                                                                                                 11

2.1.3 Other Theories of Computer Graphics                                                                                                                                                                                                             13

2.2.3 Social Studies in junior secondary school                                                                                                                                                                                                        17

2.4 Rationale for Integrating Graphics to Teaching and Learning                                                                19

2.5 Static Graphics Use in Teaching and Learning                                                                          23

2.6 Principles and Element of Graphics Design                                                                                   26

2.7 Instructional Application of Graphics                                                                                      27

2.8 Impact of Graphics on learners’ memory                                                                                 29

2.9 Summary OF Literature Review                                                                                               32



3.1 Preamble                                                                                                                                      33

3.2 Research Design                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 33

3.3 Area of the Study                                                                                                                        33

3.4 Population of the Study                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              33

3.5 Instrument for Data Collection                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    34

3.5 Sampling Procedure/ Technique                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  34

3.6 Data Collection Technique                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          34

3.7 Validity of the Instruments                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          34

3.8 Reliability of the Instruments                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      35

3.9 Method of Data Analysis                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            35



4.1 Introduction                                                                                                                                           36

4.2 Analysis of Student Bio-Data                                                                                                       36

4.3 Descriptive Statistic on Students’ social studies achievement test                                                37

4.4 Test of Hypotheses                                                                                                                   40

4.5 Discussion of the study                                                                                                                 42

4.6 Finding of Study                 



5.1 Introduction                                                                                                                              44

5.2 Conclusion                                                                                                                                44

5.3 Implication of the Study                                                                                                           45

5.4 Recommendation                                                                                                                       45

5.5 Suggestion for the further Studies                                                                                             46

5.6 Students’ academic achievement in social studies in junior secondary school                          47

       References                                                                                                                               49

       Appendix                                                                                                                                55





1.1 Background to the study:

Education in the 21st century has simply become dependent on computer as a necessary tool for enhancing teaching and learning, communication and access to information (Mason, 2002). The challenge therefore is to be able to remain relevant in the competitive education system, through the adoption and deployment of modern technology as solutions, rapidly over the past decade with development in electronics, in research on learning, and in the application of system principles to instruction. Instructional technology helps teachers to make effective use of the vast array of both old and new resources available to them. Modern development cannot thrive without emphasis on science and technology. This explains why Nigeria places premium on education as an instrument for its scientific, technological and economic development. The importance of education to the economic, and socio - political development of a multi – cultural country like Nigeria cannot be over-emphasized. The National Policy on Education gave prominent place to Social Studies Education within the school curricular, as a core subject area, which all pupils in primary and secondary schools cannot dispense within their learning activities. This perhaps, is in recognition of the potentialities of Social Studies Education to inculcate the right kind of skills and virtues through unified and integrated disciplinary study of man.(Faniyi, 2014).

Observed that in spite of the various innovations introduced into the educational system, the attainment of the desired goals remains an illusion. This under-performance of students in Basic Social Studies is attributed to many factors such as; the constant use of the lecture method of teaching, the attitude of students and teachers towards the subject, difficulty in managing overcrowded classes due to rapid population growth and so on. The use of the lecture method by teachers has been criticized by many researchers. (Newby and Lai, 2015).

This instructional method, according to them, is extremely didactic in approach, teacher-centered, and does not lead to meaningful learning. It can only encourage the development of passivity, docile learning and over-dependence on the teacher and on textbooks. Little effort is being made by teachers to supplement the oral instruction offered to learners with the integration of variety of graphic learning resources such as photographs, pictures, cartoons, to charts, maps, and diagrams.

Social studies Education programmed of study which has some allocation time on the time table for instruction. It is considered as a programmer that is a by-product of the society in which it is to be implemented. It is also a programed which emphasis the relationships human beings have with their physical and social environment. From these variables Social Studies Education is defined, according to Kissock (1981), as a programmed of study which a society uses to install in students the knowledge, skills, attitude and action it considers important concerning the relationship human being have with each other, there would and themselves.

Therefore, the multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary underpinnings of the content of Social Studies Education calls for the application of new dimensions and orientation in planning and synthesizing of a variety of teaching-learning techniques, such as the use of computers, stimulation technology, role playing techniques, guided discussion and other methods for the purpose of ensuring an attainment of appropriate Social Studies Education objectives. The Social Studies Education must accept responsibility for involving learners in a variety of classroom activities. These activities should provide opportunity for the learners to practice appropriate behavior. For example, to learn to think critically and form sound judgment, the learner must practice forming judgment. Thus the use of computer assisted instruction, which is multimedia and student-centered in nature, as a teaching technique in Social Studies Education, will go a long way to enhancing teaching and learning of the subject (Akinlaye, 2010). Supports the view that the integration of internet technology (computers), in the Social Studies Education curriculum will enhance teaching and learning more effectively. Novak and Gowin (2012)

Observed that, the kind of strategies for teaching and learning which are capable of achieving the objectives of the school and society are those which emphasize on learners‟ creative skills and child centered Inquiry-based instruction. The Computer Graphics based teaching is proposed in this study in order to investigate its effect, is one of the activity-based teaching strategy in which students work as a team in small groups while they share ideas and experiences in the process. This could lead to improved academic performance of students in school.

 (Lane, 2014). The incorporation of Computer Graphics in a lesson enable teachers to present a visual - spatial representation of learning materials; this combined with oral instruction can facilitate learning among greater number of students. Also engaging the learners in the actual production of graphic visuals offer to students the opportunities for hands – on experience, which is one of the best ways to learn.

Clark and Lyons, (2014) identified differences in learners‟ characteristics such as; age, sex, and social background among the factors that influence students‟ academic achievements. To this end computer graphic resources could be employed to remedy some of these disparities among learners via promoting effective content delivery across the various segments of students. The integration of this valuable teaching strategy is often a neglected skill among a greater number of Nigeria junior secondary school teachers. It is against this background that it becomes imperative to conduct further study on the Effect of Computer Graphics on Academic performance of Junior Secondary School Students in Social Studies.

1.2 Statement of problem:

It has been observed that some teachers of basic level Nigeria educational system are not abreast with new trends and developments in the use of computer for instruction. Social studies in a very vital subject in the JSS2, but student attitude seem to be declining. It is with this backdrop that this research intends to investigate the Effect of Computer Graphics in the teaching and learning of Social Studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Lagos State.

1.3 Purpose of study:

The main purpose of this study is to examine the Effect of Computer Graphics in junior secondary schools student’ Academic Achievement in social studies in Lagos State. Specifically, the study seeks to:

1.     determine the Effect of Computer graphics on the Academic Achievement of Students in Social Studies.

2) examine the Academic Achievement of Students exposed to Computer Graphics and those taught with the conventional method.

1.4 Research questions:

The following research questions guided the study

1.     What is the Effect of using Computer graphics on the academic achievement of students    in social studies?

2.     What is the difference between the academic achievement of Students taught using Computer Graphics and those taught using conventional method?

3.     What is the difference in the academic achievement of the male and female students taught using Computer Graphics?

1.5 Hypotheses:

The following hypotheses were tested for possible acceptance or rejection:

1.         There is no significant difference between the Academic Achievement of Students taught using Computer Graphics and those taught using the conventional method.

2.         There is no significant difference between the Academic Achievement of male and female students taught using Computer Graphics.

 1.6 Scope of the study:

The study on Effect of computer graphics in junior secondary school students’ attitude to the academic achievement in social studies is limited to some selected junior secondary schools in Education District IV of Lagos state. The study involves Federal College of Education Technical Staff School and Eletu Odibo Junior High School Lagos State.

 1.7 Significance of the Study

On this premise this study will be carried out and its findings will be useful to the following categories of people:

Curriculum planners

The teachers,

School administrators,

The government (federal, state and local)

Educational technologists and other members of the community.

1    For instance, the findings of this study will give additional knowledge to curriculum planners and designers on the effect of computer graphics in education, how to arrange and properly introduce the use of computer graphics to achieve the objectives for effective teaching and learning.

2    Education students in colleges and universities may also find the study valuable when they consult it in the course of their studies.

3    To school administrators, it will bring to the fore, the vital functions that  computer graphics play in teaching-learning process especially as it relates to concretizing acquired knowledge and skills for long term memory.

4    Government may also find the study useful because it attempts to show areas where its intervention is required, such as greater commitment to issues like; re-training of teachers, provision of structures, and material resources/equipment that will promote effective teaching and learning. It is expected that government will further realize the potentialities of the various instructional materials as crucial tools to teachers for the attainment of instructional objectives and to that effect provide the needed financial and moral support to acquisition and proper utilization of such materials.

5    The findings of this research will also be useful for the improvement of Nigerian Social Studies education in the following ways: The study may serve as an insight to researchers, who might consult in process of carrying out similar study in the future.

1.7 Operational definition of terms:

The following terms are defined as related in the context of this study:.

Computer Graphics: pictures and films created using computer to facilitate the process of teaching and learning.

Social studies: is to help young people to develop ability to make informed and reasoned decisions for public good as citizen of a culturally diverse democratic society in an inter-dependent word.

Academic Achievement: The score of the students in commerce test.

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