main purpose of this study was to identify the effect of availability of
equipment on students’ performance in Foods and Nutrition. The research is imperative
in that the findings of the study will assist government and other key
stakeholders in education to provide support towards the implementation of Foods
and Nutrition curriculum focused on the identified critical challenges.
study adopted the descriptive survey research design in which 8 schools
selected through purposive sampling technique. The population for this study
comprised of students in all the secondary schools in Lagos State that are
offering Foods and Nutrition as a subject at ordinary level. Eight secondary
schools in Surulere Local government comprising 120 students were selected by a
simple random sampling and this also comprised of 8 Foods and Nutrition
teachers. A structured questionnaire,
interviews and observations were used as data collection instruments.
findings reveal the following challenges as militating against the effective
implementation of the Foods and Nutrition curriculum in Lagos State: negative
attitude by parents and students towards the subject; inadequate professional
and qualified teachers for the teaching of Foods and Nutrition; inadequate
infrastructure and equipment in schools and where the equipment is available it
being underutilized due to lack of expertise and inconsistent electrical power
supply ; insufficient instructional materials and books in schools ; and that
schools are generally poorly financed.
Four key recommendations arising from the
study are that quarterly awareness campaigns should be carried out in society
to educate the public about the importance of Foods and Nutrition as well as
technical and vocational subjects in the curriculum; training programs in form
of seminars, conferences, workshops and in servicing, should be organized at regular intervals to
equip teachers with the requisite skills for the teaching of Foods and
Nutrition; school should form partnerships with the industries and corporate
bodies aimed at financing the implementation of Foods and Nutrition curriculum
and vocational subjects in secondary schools and that adequate infrastructure,
resource materials and facilities should be provided in schools for effective
teaching and learning.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE I
TABLE OF CONTENT VI
Background to the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Justification of the Study
Definition of terms
of Literature review
Population of the study
Description of Data
Method of Data collection
Analysis and interpretation of Data
Presentation of Data for Section A
Presentation of Data for Section B
Test of Hypothesis
Discussion of findings
to the Study
is fundamental to developing a sense of well-being and to meeting the growth,
development, and activity needs of healthy, confident children and young
people. Readiness to learn is enhanced when the learners are well nourished.
There is considerable evidence linking children’s nutrition to educational
outcomes. If children are malnourished, have nutritional deficiencies or are
obese, then their learning is likely to be affected.
(2009) comments that education at all level is a delicate issue, which serves
as a way forward to every society – especially in a developing nation like
Nigeria. Advanced countries have improved their standard of living by
education, which is considered to stimulate economic and technological
development; thus, education can be regarded as an investment that yields
dividends in terms of overall development of a country (Adesina, 2009). Formal
education started in Nigeria during the colonial period. It developed from the
early forms of reading, writing and arithmetic (i.e. the three ‘r’s) to a stage
where the London Genera Certificate of Education, Ordinary Level Syllabus (the
so-called O-Level) was used to guide instruction in secondary schools (Fafunwa,
1974). These secondary ‘grammar schools’ were fashioned in such a way that did
not accommodate the vocational technical subjects, and as a consequence trade
centers and colleges were established. Here, the City and Guild (Intermediate)
syllabus was used to guide instruction and upon completion, successful students
were awarded the City and Guild (Intermediate) Certificate of London. The
Federal Craft Certificate or the Ministry of Labour Trade Test Certificate also
was awarded to successful candidates. The Federal Craft and Trade Test Programs
were put in place by the Federal Government of Nigeria mainly to improve the
understanding and competencies of artisans and technicians.
view of the fact that most of our youths pass through the secondary grammar
schools (as the trade colleges were fewer in number), following the political
independence of Nigeria, there was a realization that the type of education our
colonial masters left with us needed a critical reexamination of the worth: of
content, objectives, relevance, methods, administration, evaluation, and so
forth. According to Ezeobata (2010), this period saw a state of affairs in
Nigeria education where every subject had to ‘prove its usefulness’ to retain a
place in the school curriculum. Probably, this was what led the then National
Educational Research Council (NERC) to convey an historic curriculum conference
at Lagos in 1969, which Okeke (1981, p. 10)has described as “a culmination of
people’s dissatisfaction with uncertainty of the aims of education.” This
conference recommended new set of goals and provided directions for major
curriculum revision upon which the National Policy on Education of 1977 and the
revised policy in 1981 was based.
this background of national aspirations, a new educational system commonly
referred to as the 6-3-3-4’ system of education emerged. Among other
innovations, the sytem provided for pre-vocational and vocational curricular offerings
at the junior and senior secondary schools respectively. For the first time in
the history of education in Nigeria, vocational and technical education
subjects were, as a matter of national policy, to be offered side by side, and
hopefully, enjoy parity in esteem with the ‘more academic’ courses hitherto run
by the secondary grammar schools under the old colonial-based system of
this end, the national curriculum on Agriclture, Introductory Technology, Home
Economics, Business Studies (Junior Secondary School Level), Agricultural
Science, Clothing and Textile, Home Mangement, Food and Nutrition, Typewriting
& Shorthand, Principles of Accounts, Commerce, Woodwork, Technical Drawing,
Basic Electronics, and Auto-Mechanics came into being in Nigerian Secondary
schools. As one of the innovations that should distinguish the products of the
new system from the old, school work was now based on these curricula in both
private and public secondary schools from 1982 – driven by the government’s directive
that post-primary schools shold be more comprehensive, which the National
Policy on Education had earlier proposed in 1981.
is no doubt about the usefulness of these programs in secondary schools
provided errors or specific weaknesses of the ‘process’ (if any) are
identified, and remedial measures taken for improvement. There is the fear that
most research reports about the implemented curriculum favour the patronage of
public schools, with little or no regard to private secondary schools.
in some earlier studies like Relevant of Education, A Myth or Reality? Taylor
(2011), stated that as a result of curriculum integration in the Nigerian New
System of Education (NPE, 2004, Revised), Nigerian Students and Teachers were
asked questions to determine their attitude to vocational and technical
subjects as it affects their teaching and learning in a typical Nigerian
Technical School. From a more general perspective, Taylor (1961) also reported
on students’ expectations of their teachers in different kinds of school
settings. Teachers, according to the report, according to the report seem to
work within a framework of expectations. They may respond to some of these
expectations and reject others. Kay (1971), argued that, the teacher’s role
must broaden in scope to parental functions if curriculum integration of
teachings and learning is to become a reality.
(1971) stated that, the general outlay over the depreciating/ falling standard
of education in Nigeria and incessant poor performance of students in schools
call for a proper and continual study of educational system in order to
identify the constraints to the effective implementation of vocational
education program and that we should try out a variety of possible solutions to
the problems that have resulted to this malaise. Advocates of curriculm
integration in the Nigerian New System of Education, for example, Adesina
(1982), find elements in the current situation in Nigerian Schools, which
vindicate these problems, centering around the uncertainties of curriculum
(1991) states that, training for industrial occupations in vocational/technical
schools is comparatively a recent phenomenon. Until the 19th
Century. Apprenticeships and informal training developed skills for most manual
occupations, largely through association with a master – often for many years.
In recent times, technological advances, analytical and communication skills
were required in vocational education and training as well as more theoretical
knowledge. Uyanya (1989) stated that, the most important thing that ever
happened to Nigeria is the 1981 National Policy on Education, which emphasizes
the acquisition of vocational skill and self-reliance.
trend helped make teachers, student and the public in general, become
increasingly aware of the need to develop skill to operate our various
industries. According to Maduewesi (1985), the New Policy (6-3-3-4 educational
system) on education enables individual students to spend 6 years in primary schools,
3 years in junior secondary schools, 3 years in senior secondary schools and 4
years in tertiary institution. Sower (1971) observes that vocational/ technical
education is a means towards industrialization of Nigeria. Olaitan (2006)
defines vocational/ technical education as that aspect of education which is a
skill acquisition-oriented form of training, based on application of
mathematics and scientific knowledge in specific field for self actualization
and development. Sower (1971) goes on to
state that vocational/ technical education is a social process, concerned
primarily with people and their part in doing work that society needs alone with preparing the people for work and
improving the work potential the labour
force. Now, the world drifts t Science and technology to fit into the society
in the nearest future, requiring an indispensable knowledge of vocation
of the problem
is apparent that there is astronomical decline in students academic performances
in Nigerian Secondary schools and this has been of much concern to the
government , parents, teachers and stakeholders. The quality of education not only depends on
teachers as reflected in the performance of their duties, but also in the effective
utilization and deployment of instructional materials and equipment, which are
pivotal to achieving greater performance.
extent to which leaving could be enhanced depends largely on the available and effective use of equipment,
especially in such vocational subject as Foods,
Nutrition, Home Economics and Basic Technology and so on (Chukwuka
problem of the present study is to investigate the effect of using improvised
equipment in the teaching of Food and Nutrition in secondary schools and its
implication academic performance. Therefore the researcher ‘s priority is to
determine whether non-availability of equipment constituted the problem
affecting the academic performance in Foods and Nutrition.
What impact does the use of equipment has on students’ academic performance in
the teaching of Foods and Nutrition in Nigeria secondary schools?
Does the exposure of students to the use
of these equipment facilitates comprehensive learning and thereby stimulate
their interest in the subject?
How often does student academic
performance correlates with the use of or availability of equipment in terms of
external examination e.g. WAEC OR NECO?
Students’ academic performance has no
bearing on the use or availability of Foods and Nutrition equipment?
Does the teacher’s experience alone have
any significant input in academic performance of students in Foods and
Nutrition aside the use of equipment in the teaching of Foods and Nutrition?
Will a teacher perform better without the
use of equipment in teaching Foods and Nutrition and what impact will that have
on students’ academic performance?
OF THE STUDY
study sought to investigate the extent to which the availability of equipment
in the teaching of Foods and Nutrition has on students academic performance .
the purpose of this study is to;
ermine the extent to which teaching materials and equipment affect students’
challenges to effective implementation of Foods and Nutrition curriculum in
some seconday schools offering the subject in Surulere Local Government
the strategies that can be employed to deal with these challenges.
is no relationship between availability
of equipment on student academic performance
is no significant between student academic performance and teachers’
proficiency in teaching of Foods and Nutrition.
of the study
an attempt to improve the teaching of Foods and Nutrition as well as vocational
subjects in Lagos state secondary schools and make the learning of Food and Nutrition as well as vocational
subjects more attractive to students, this study makes the following important
contributions to knowledge and education. Firstly, [this study provides Food
and Nutrition educators, curriculum planners and government with detailed
information about the actual picture of Food and Nutrition teaching and
learning, and educational practices in Lagos State schools and ways of
improving the situation. This in turn can help in planning and formulating
further policies for Food and Nutrition education in Lagos State. Secondly, the
study also opens avenues for further research in the area based on the knowledge
gaps other scholars will have found.
The participants in the study are a
sample of Food and Nutrition teachers teaching in one education district in
Zimbabwe, and thus, are not representative of all Food and Nuthtion teachers
throughout the country. A larger sample representative of all education
districts, schools and teachers that offer Food and Nutrition in the country
would be recommended.
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