This project is a
survey of level of alcohol in beverages produced in Nigeria and to ascertain
the compliance of the producers in accordance with accepted values on WHO
recommendation. Six brands of alcoholic beverages (Guilders, star Harp,
Heineken, Stout and Legend) were bought in Awka in Anambra state. The samples
were analyzed for level of alcohol (Ethanol) using acid dichromate reaction and
visible spectroscopy methods. The result obtained for bottom fermented beers;
Guilders 5.1, star 5.3, Harp 5.2, Heineken 5.1, top fermented beer Stout 7.2
and Legend6.5 were compared with the European Brewing convention standard of
5.1+0.2 and 7.3+0.2 for bottom and top fermented beer respectively. The result
showed , permissible levels for each of the six samples analyzed which are
within acceptable limit except for legend stout with alcohol content of 6.5
against 7.3+ 0.2 which is the European Brewing convention standard for top fermented beer. The six samples are within
the acceptable limit.
Table of Contents
Title page i
Table of Contents v
List of Tables viii
1.1 Background of
1.2 Statement of the
1.3 Objective of the
1.4 Significance of
the Study 5
1.5 Scope of Study 5
1.6 Research Question 6
2.1 Alcohol content of Beverages 9
2.1.1 Alcohol Strength
2.1.2 The OIML
2.1.3 Standard Drinks 17
2.1.4 Effects of Alcohol on the Body 18
2.1.5 Alcohol Intakes and Health 23
2.1.6 Ethanol and the
2.1.7 Ethanol and Cancer 29
2.1.8 Ethanol and the
2.2 Other Effects of
2.2.1 Oxidation of Ethanol 33
3.1 Materials 38
3.2 Collection of
3.3 Methods 40
3.3.1 Preparation of
Standard Ethanol Solution 41
3.3.2 Preparation of Acid Dichromate Solution 41
3.3.3 Measuring the
Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Discussion 47
5.2 Conclusion 48
5.3 Recommendation 48
Appendix 1 53
List of Tables
Table 1: Types of alcoholic beverages and their energy values.
Table 2: The approximate alcohol content of beverages in the OIML
3: Effects of various levels of
Alcohol in the body.
Table 4: Standard ethanol solutions and blank preparations.
Table 5: Results of absorbance of blank,
standard solutions and test samples.
Table 6: Results of weight percent of samples as determined from
content of samples.
of the study.
An alcoholic beverage is a drink
containing ethanol (commonly called alcohol), also called ethylalcohol, pure
alcohol, grain alcohol or drinking alcohol. It is a volatile flammable
colorless liquid. It is a powerful psychoactive drug and one of the oldest
recreational drugs. It is best known as the type of alcohol found in alcohol
beverages and thermometer. In common usage, it is often referred to simply as
alcohol or spirit (Brain and Allan, 2005).
Alcoholic beverages are divided into
three general classes, beer, wines and spirits. They are legally consumed in
most countries and over 100 countries have laws regulating their production and
consumption. In particular, such laws specify the minimum age at which a person
may legally buy or drink the minimum age varies between 16 and 25 years,
depending upon the country and the type of drink. Most nations set it at 18
years of age. Alcohol beverages are valued on account of their flavour and
their stimulating effect and hardly at all as a source of energy; nevertheless,
it is worth nothing that the energy value of dry wine is about equal to that of
milk. The three classes of alcoholic beverages are all made from carbohydrate
materials by fermentation and their particular ingredient used and the way in
which it is processed chiefly determines the character of the drink. The
starting material used depends upon the product required. For example whisky is
made from grain, Rum from molasses, wine from grapes, beer from malt and cider
from apples (Morris Jacobs, 2009). The production and consumption of alcohols
occurs in most cultures of the world, from hunter gatherer people to nation
of the Problem.
Alcoholic beverages are often an
important part of social event in these cultures. In many cultures, drinking
plays a significant role in social interaction-mainly because of alcohol’s
neurological effects. Alcohol is a psychoactive drug that has depressant effect.
A high blood alcohol content is usually considered to be legal drunkenness
because it reduces attention and slows reaction speed. Alcohol can be additive,
and the state of addition to alcohol is known as alcoholism (Bamforth, 2006).
Alcohol-specifically ethanol (ethyl
alcohol, EtOH, CH3CH2OH) is the most socially accepted
additive drug, which can have life threatening health hazards, its pleasures
are very widely acknowledged and form a bond of community for the majority of
adults in Western countries. References to those pleasures from a kind of
“standing joke” physical and mental discordination (disorientation are viewed
with bemused affection).
of the study
main objective is to analyze and determine the level of ethanol beverages made
specific objective that will achieve the following
ascertain the quality of alcoholic beverages produced in Nigeria.
identify if there is proper monitoring and quality control
beverages are a standard lubricant (anxiety-reliever) at social gatherings and
those who refuse to consume ethanol run the risk of being social outcasts.
of the Study
Health benefits are frequently claimed
for alcohol when consumed in moderation. Most of the claimed benefits are
associated with reducing cardiovascular disease. However alcohol health
implication vulmently out weights its health benefit. This project is a survey
of level of alcohol in beverages produced in Nigeria and to ascertain the
complains of the producer in accordance with accepted values of EBC/WHO recommendation
of the Study
The scope of the study include the
sampling and analysis of made in Nigeria Alcoholic beverage to determine the
level of ethanol using acid dichromate reaction and visible spectroscopy
compare the results with that of WHO acceptable standard.
are the methods employed in the determination of ethanol in alcoholic beverages.
are the effect of alcohol to the human health.
made in Nigeria alcoholic beverages meets the international acceptable
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