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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00006818

No of Pages: 46

No of Chapters: 5

File Format: Microsoft Word

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Due to irregular power supply common in developing countries, as well as the growing high cost of hydrocarbon, the need arises for the development of a dual energy source oven that uses both electricity and gas for heating oven chambers. The oven was fabricated with the use of indigenous materials according to the conceptual design. The oven consist of a housing unit(frame), a thermometer, a gas regulator, a tray, an oven door, a perforated plate, a heating gas burner, an electric heating element, caster wheels/ rollers support. The housing unit which is the frame represents the entire outlook of the baking oven. The components make possible the use of alternative heat sources. In the heating chamber is an electric heating element that generates and dissipates heat within the enclosure. Cooking gas is supplied to the burner located in the lower chamber of the oven via pipe connection to the gas cylinder. Perforation allows for dissipation of unwanted gases within the chamber. COMSOL Multiphysics is used for simulation and for optimization of determined properties of raw state of unbaked cake flour, heating element. The performance test gave oven efficiency of 95.2 percent. The temperature of the entire system when considered in an ideal state as simulated by comsol performs better with gas as a heat source though slightly different from electric heater. For the temperature-varying density simulation, the temperature of the entire system and heating elements first decreases in temperature, then increases because density first rises with respect to time, then decreases with respect to time; therefore, the initial temperature drop of the system is due to the higher density, and the temperature rise is due to the decreasing density. The oven can be adapted for both domestic and industrial purposes and have been found very useful in bakery industries.


Title Page i
Declaration ii
Dedication iii
Certification iv
Acknowledgments v
Table of Contents            vi
Abstract           viii

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION                                           
1.0 Background of the study             1
1.1 Statement of problems                        2
1.2 Objectives/ scope of study            3
1.3 Justification            3

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW                                          4
2.1 Overall concept            4
2.1.1 Local comparative analysis            5
2.1.2 Empirical model            6
2.2 Principle of operation of the oven                      7
2.3 Importance of baking ovens            8
2.4 Heat transfer and work done by the oven                         8
2.5 Basic laws governing heat transfer                         9
2.6 Modes of heat transfer           10
2.7 Thermodynamic comsol analysis of the oven              10

CHAPTER 3: MATERIAL AND METHODS                                          
3.1 Design concept           11
3.2 Material selections           11
3.2.1 Material quantity and cost                                                   14
3.3 Design methodology            15
3.4 Design analysis            15
3.5.0 Energy requirement of the gas oven            16
3.5.1 Heat of formation of Carbon IV Oxide;            17
3.5.2 Electric energy requirement of the oven     18
3.5.3 Heating element rating power of electric heating element    18
3.6 Design concept of the oven            19
3.6.1 The part view of the oven                                                   20
3.6.2 Autographic views of the oven               
 3.6.3 Section view showing the lagged parts of the oven                   22                                 
3.6.4 The major components of the oven                           23

CHAPTER 4: RESULTS                                                                   
4.1. Machine testing            24
4.2. Operation of the oven            24
4.3 Comsol result for oven            24

5.1 Conclusion            36
5.2 Recommendation            36
REFERENCES             37


1.0 Background of the study
A baking Oven is a thermally insulated chamber used for the heating, baking or drying. Fine wood and smoked dry charcoal had been used on open brick by early man but could no longer meet the need of the growing world population. Firewood and smoked dry charcoal method of cooking was later realized to be exposing man to health risk as a result of its carbon emission. However, some of this health risk gave rise to the thought of the benefits of baked foods.    Baked foods are considered healthy because of their low fat content, rich in taste, because they cook more in their own oil making them more juicy and flavor-rich. Since minerals and some vitamins are water soluble, they can be lost through boiling as they leach into the water. Baking uses dry heat thus preserving these minerals and vitamins like vitamin B and C.

However, baking can be simply described as a food processing techniques that uses the prolonged dry heat by Convection rather than the thermal radiation from wood ashes or hot stones. In a baking oven, the hot air flows over the baking material either by natural convection by a fan, by the convection heat transfer from the air by radiation heat transfer from the oven heating surfaces, and by the conduction heat transfer across contact areas between products and metal surface. The moisture in the food material simultaneously diffuses towards the surfaces, then, it transfers from the surface by convection and the product moisture with continuous movement of the oven ambient air.
Commercially, Ovens are available in various configurations like electric ovens, micro ovens and wood oven. Electric oven are powered by electricity while gas oven are powered by natural gas.

The coal chamber is being powered by wood charcoal. This project is as a result of increasing interest for baked food. Essentially the idea, as demonstrated in an existing design, arises in us the project students, a feeling of motivation, and hence the search for a way to bring it to reality in a simple yet intelligent design. Roasting and baking are universal cooking methods consisting in heating the food inside an oven at a uniform temperature. In this process, heat is transferred to the load mainly by means of radiation and convection. Although these are widely known phenomena, complex and combined thermal, chemical and mass transfer process occur within the product and change its properties during the cooking process (Pulls. E, 2012) Baking on its own is a complex simultaneous heat and mass transfer process commonly applied in food industries (Genitha et al. 2014) An oven is the device usually used to achieve modern days baking, it is the most widely used appliance in food service industry.  An oven can be simply described as a fully enclosed thermally insulated chamber used for the heating, baking or drying of a substance (Webster, 2012)

By considering their energy source, ovens can be broadly classified into two group, fuel-based and electric ovens (Mullinger, 2008) Electric ovens are the direct fired oven, which effectively distribute heat while being powered by electricity, although this can often result in a higher heating cost for the consumer. Gas ovens on the other hand are fuel powered ovens that use gas as a fuel in generating its conventional and radiation heats.

1.1 Statement of problems 
The study on baking ovens has received a considerable attention over the decades, due to its high demand considering the continuous increase in demand for baked products .Nigeria is not left out in this analysis but the current erratic power cut facing the country especially in the middle of operation can lead to several damages, as a matter of fact can lead to great loss in the quality of the end product and loss of capital too. To crown it all, the electric oven consumes lot of energy. The use of gas as the energy source for baking oven though preferable in some regions can be very expensive mostly when a hike in price is experienced in the oil sector. Considering these, a need aroused for the development of dual heating source of an oven to help solve this problem.

1.2 Objectives/ Scope of study:
To carry out performance optimization on fabricated oven.

To analyze the various thermodynamics properties affecting an oven in operation, 

To evaluate the design output of the various energy sources of the oven (electricity and gas) 

1.3 Justification 
The success of this project work helped improved the overall performance of the dual energy oven. It helped optimize the initial performance of the ovens produced by previous researchers and we were able to highlight the lapses in the previous fabrications through the overall empirical results as well as simulation, analysis and computations results of the consol software used. 

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