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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00005164

No of Pages: 48

No of Chapters: 5

File Format: Microsoft Word

Price :



This project, Design and production of ceiling board using Plaster of Paris (POP) Gypsum materials. Gypsum is basically the raw material required in the manufacturing Plaster of Paris (POP) which posses an outstanding property  and a good material for producing ceiling board.

The materials procured for the project are plaster of Paris, fiber, water and mould. The equipment used for the project are scrapper, measuring tape, mixing bowl, bucket. Firstly, water was poured into the container (mixing bowl) and plaster of Paris sprinkled, two minutes was waited for absorption and then the mortar was mixed with hand and shaked vigorously to obtain a fully homogeneous mixture and thereafter the mortar was sprayed on the mould and fiber was added which serves as reinforcement.

Water absorption test was carried out on the sample and the result indicated that plaster of Paris (POP) ceiling board has an average 8.4 percent water absorptivity compare to Asbestos with 0.5 percent. Therefore plaster of paris (POP) ceiling board absorb water readily in case there is water leakage of the roof. Flexural strength test was carried out and the result obtained showed that plaster of paris (POP) ceiling board has a mean flexural strength of 11.4 N/mm2 and Asbestos has an average flexural strength of about 1.00 N /mm2.

 To this end, it is proved that plaster of paris (POP) ceiling board posses sufficient strength and it is durable for Civil Engineering works.





Title page                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                   iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                       iv

Abstract                                                                                                      v

Table of contents                                                                                        vi

List of plates                                                                                               ix

List of tables                                                                                               x


1.0     Introduction                                                                                                1

1.1     Statement of problem                                                                       3

1.2     Aim and Objectives                                                                           3

1.3     Justification of study                                                                        3

1.4     Scope of the study                                                                                      4


2.0     Literature Review                                                                              5

2.1     History of Gypsum                                                                           6

2.2     Old use of Gypsum                                                                           7

2.3     Modern use of Gypsum                                                                     8

2.4     Gypsum Credential                                                                           9

2.5     Gypsum product and its unique properties                                                10

2.5.1  Fire Resistance                                                                                  10

2.5.2  Acoustic Properties                                                                           11
2.5.3  Thermal Properties                                                                                     11

2.5.4  Aesthetics and Design                                                                       12

2.5.5  Sound Isolation Properties                                                               12

2.6     Manufacture of plaster from Gypsum                                                        12

2.7     Physical Properties of Gypsum                                                                  13

2.8     Chemical Properties of Gypsum                                                       14

2.9     Survey on Hemp core fiber                                                               14


3.0     Methodology                                                                                     17

3.1     Procurement of Materials                                                                           17

3.2     Equipment used for the project                                                                  17

3.3     Preparation of Mould                                                                       17

3.4     Preparation of separator                                                                            18

3.5     Mixing of Aggregate                                                                         18

3.6     Casting                                                                                              18

3.7     Demoulding                                                                                                19

3.8     Water Absorption Test                                                                     19

3.9     Flexural Strength Test                                                                      20


4.0     Result and Discussion                                                                       21

4.1     Plates                                                                                                21

4.2     Tables and Calculation                                                                     32


5.0     Conclusion and Recommendation                                                     34

5.1     Conclusion                                                                                        34

5.2     Recommendation                                                                              35

REFERENCES                                                                                 36


Plate 4.1     Mould used for the project                                                      21

Plate 4.2     Application of separator                                                                   21

Plate 4.3     Mixing of Aggregate                                                                22

Plate 4.4     Casting process 1                                                                    23

Plate 4.5     Casting process 2                                                                    24

Plate 4.6     Casting process 3                                                                    25

Plate 4.7     waiting for the sample to set                                                   26

Plate 4.8     Demoulding                                                                                      28

Plate 4.9     The Sample                                                                             30

Plate 4.10   Weighing of the sample                                                           31


Table 4.1    Water Absorption test Result                                                  32

Table 4.2    Flexural Strength test Result                                                   33




This project deals with the design and production of ceiling board using POP gypsum materials. Plaster of Paris (POP) which is calcium sulphate with half molecule of water of crystallization (CaSO4.1/2H20)  and  hygroscopic characteristic obtained by duly  calcined the material that is Gypsum (CaSO4.2H20). It possess an outstanding property of setting and subsequent hardening when mixed with water (Smith, 1896).

Gypsum is basically the raw material require to manufacture Plaster of Paris. This is cleaned and washed for removal of impurities, dried in sunlight and then pulverized. Gypsum powder are calcined in a rotary drum calcinatory using light diesel oil/firewood/coal as fuel. The low pressure burner is sufficient to reach the calcinations temperature range from 160oc to 180oc.The process of calcinations is done over a period of about 2 hours so that one – halves molecule of water is removed to obtain the required properties after cooling, the calcined powder is passed through 150 mesh and packed in airtight polythene lined bags.

Modern Gypsum board has it predecessor a product called “sackett board”. A composite material that was made of layer of thin plaster placed between four piles of wool felt paper. Sackett board was  patented in 1894,  By  Augustine Sackett, The man generally considered to be the grandfather of gypsum board manufacturing industry.

Prior to 1894, Gypsum had been used for thousand of years as building material and as an architectural detailing element. The first use of gypsum in building construction appears to occurred in 3700BC, when an Egyptian used gypsum blocks and plaster applied over woven straw lath in the building of the pyramid of cheops.

A French chemist (Lavoiser, 1710), Analysed the chemical make up  of gypsum, his work and subsequent research by a group of his contemporary chemists coupled with the discovery and mining of huge reserve of gypsum near Paris leads to the wholesale use of plaster of Paris as a building material.

Plaster of Paris is extensively used in ceramics industry for preparation of models and moulds. It is also used as main raw material in the manufacture of toy and statues, chalk, crayon, gypsum plaster board and decorative picture frame besides wide range of application in interior decoration of building and other establishment (Alfred, 1896).

As there is growing building construction activities and advancement in technology, POP gypsum board are used in home and  offices  and  indeed  all  type of  building  where  people congregate such as schools, halls, churches, mosques, airports e.t.c.

POP gypsum ceiling board provides more aesthetic outlook, offer adequate resistance to heat and sufficient resistance to fire.


Recent  studies indicate that asbestos ceiling contains hazardous material from the health point of view. Prolonged inhalation of asbestos fiber can cause lung cancer, mesothelioma, asbestosis. Therefore it has been banned from use in many developed country due to the chrysotile content.

To this end, there is need for alternative ceiling material which is durable, reliable and affordable.


          The aim of this project is to design and produce  ceiling board using POP gypsum materials

The objectives of the study is highlighted below :-

·        To produce durable lightweight building material for ceiling

·        To determine the strength of the ceiling board.

·        To determine it durability.

·        To determine the water absorption capacity.


The use of gypsum ceiling board for ceiling finishing should be adopted and improved because the problems associated with asbestos, which have been used as ceiling finishes for years but with the use of POP gypsum material as ceiling finishes which offers sufficient sound insulation and considerable absorption of heat from the roof and hence provide employment opportunity to the producer.

1.4            SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope and limitation of this project is basically the design and production of ceiling board using  POP  gypsum material. In this project, water absorption test and flexural strength test was carried out to determine the water capacity, strength and durability of the sample made up of composite quantity of POP plaster, water and fibre (villas) when subjected to loading.

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