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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00006558

No of Pages: 48

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There are various Gas Emission Monitoring System available in Nigeria today. However, there is a problem with the efficiency of these systems and often it fails to achieve what it intends to achieve. Due to ignorance or availability, owners of mechanical machines in Nigeria do not own a gas emission monitoring device and therefore does not checkmate the kind of gases they emit. An IOT based gas emission monitoring system will bring to the consciousness of the owners of these machines, the need to always have the machines in good state. Due to the presence of a regulating body who gets feedback of the kind/level of gas every device emits, — through the help of internet of thing. This work intends to educate users on when and how their machines emit gases not suitable for human conditions as well as gases that affects the ozone layer which in turn causes climate change. All these will be made possible using gas sensors MQ 7 and MQ 135, Voltage regulators, Arduino Nano, WIFI chips, GPS, PCB, 12V Battery, and a Mobile Phone. This work shall focus on the development of a Prototype.


Title Page i
Declaration ii
Dedication iii
Certification iv
Acknowledgement v
Table of Content vi
List of Figures vii
List of Tables ix
Abstract x

1.1 Background of Study 1
1.2 Statement of Problem 2
1.3 Aim of Study 3
1.4 Objective of Study 3
1.5 Study Question 4
1.6 Scope of Study 4
1.7 Significance of Study 4
1.8 Definition of Terms
1.8.1 Design and Development 5
1.8.2 IOT Based 5
1.8.3 Gas Emissions 5

2.0 Literature Review 6
2.1 Concept of IOT Technology 9
2.2 The Concept of Gas Emission Analyzer 10

3.0 Methodology 13
3.1 Design Procedures
3.1.1 Circuit Design Using Printed Circuit Board (PCB) 14
3.2 Circuit Analysis 15
3.2.1 Regulator IC (7805) 15
3.2.2 Lm317 Voltage Regulator 16
3.2.3 Gas Sensors 16
3.2.4 MQ-7 Carbon Monoxide Sensor Circuit Built with an Arduino 16
3.2.5 MQ135 Gas Sensor 17
3.2.6 The Microcontroller Unit 17
3.2.7 ESP8266 18
3.2.8 GPS Module 19
3.2.9 Interfacing the LCD with the Microcontroller 19
3.3 Principle of Operation of the IOT Based Emission Monitoring System 20
3.4 Numerical Evaluation 21

4.0 Evaluations and Performance 25
4.1 Performance Test 25
4.2 Cost Evaluation 33

5.1 Conclusion 34
5.2 Recommendations 34
References 35


Fig. 3.1 The design of the IoT based emission monitoring system 13
Fig. 3.2 the IoT based emission monitoring system 14
Fig 3.6 System block diagram 20
Fig. 3.7. Internal circuit diagram of MQ135 21
Fig. 4.1 Graphical Representation of data samples gotten from Generators 28
Fig 4.2 Data samples gotten from Cars, Motorcycles and Keke Napep 32

Table 1: Parts of the IoT based emission monitoring system 14
Table 4.1: Data samples gotten from Generators 25
Table 4.2 Data samples gotten from Cars, Motorcycles and Keke Napep 29
Table 4.1 Cost Evaluation 33


IOT which stands for Internet of Things is the use of the internet to connect different networks or various devices for the purpose of storing or easily circulating data around either a specified group (cloud) or open source (web). According to (Adefemi et al., 2020), the use of intelligence gathered from telemetry data produced via cloud computing and IOT is becoming prevalent in predictions and controls. It is an open secret that the world is fast becoming digitalized, and most transactions are now done on the internet, so it is not out of place for us to assume that in the nearest future anything not online (Internet) will be considered out of date, incorrect, unreliable etc. Therefore, we must start preparing ourselves and local industry for a time like that, hence the essence of this work and as mechanical engineering students we decided to deal with problems generated from mechanical devices providing solutions and recommending different ways to minimize the resultant effects of what can/may not be stop with suitable methods known to us.

Gas emission is the release of greenhouse gases into the environment for a specified number of times. Greenhouse gases are harmful to the body and one of the causes of climate change hence the need for urgent concerns. For this work we shall focus on gas emission as an air pollution caused by man which is harmful. According to (Ahmed, 2018), an air pollutant is known as a material having unpropitious issues on the humans and the ecosystem. The pollutants can be solid particles, gases, or liquid droplets. A pollutant can either be originated from nature or man-made. Our work shall focus on the following gases (CO, CO₂, and NOx) emitted from mechanical devices, monitor, and calculate the level of gases emitted then recommend solutions to keep them in check according to national and international standards available for each of the gas.

We considered ignorance of the owners of these machines as a problem then developed a prototype of a system which tells the primary owner when the gas emitted from their machine is above normal limit (according to national and international standard) so they can fix it, because it only goes above limit when the machine is faulty. In the same vail, we assumed a regulatory body who should monitor and ensure the machine is fixed hence the need for IOT to pass this information across through a secured cloud.

Environmental pollution is a serious issue in the 21st century. The main source of pollution in the world is automobile machines. Many laws and regulations have been made around the world to control environmental pollution caused by emission. Nigeria has something called National Action Plan to Reduce short-lived climate pollutant with the aim to regulate the air pollution. But to the best of our knowledge this body has not lived up to its full potentials, more work needs to be done and more work can be done. Hence the need for an advanced and easy device to be developed. Consequently, apart from helping the already existing plan of the federal government, this will enlighten the masses on how and when they are contributors to the problem of pollution. At this point, we believe that most Nigerians are ignorant of the fact that they are major contributors to our damaged environment because they assume they should only visit a mechanic workshop when their device is faulty for repairs instead of routine maintenance.

Developing countries like Nigeria, are faced with the challenge of educating its citizens on the negative effect of gas emission on them and their immediate environment and as well monitor to ensure necessary rules and regulations are adhered to. In addition, as our engineering industry is fast improving to compete at the global stage by developing more machines to solve our local problems at a global standard, it is important to focus on easing the gas emission problems these machines might cause —because these machines cannot, not be produced— therefore we shall dive into reducing the negative effects of this very important machine on us and our environments and by extension, the world in general. This is because the causes of current flooding across the nation cannot be far-fetched from excess emission that leads to the melting of the ozone layer which in turn causes flooding that affects our immediate environment.

Accordingly, as these emissions become more ignored, due to lack of knowledge or equipment to curtail them, they become obsolete and eventually destroy lives and properties we intend to protect and preserve by building the machine in the first place. The destruction and loss of the valuable nature of our environment will continue if a proper decision isn’t made and we continue to reuse strategy that has already failed without any modification done to meet the needs of our surrounding. Consequently, there should be a way to record and store information on emission for further studies, analysis or even permutations and in the world of today the internet is the best place for this because of the ease that comes with accessing data on the internet from anywhere and at any time. Most importantly, this work shall serve as a bridge between the government and its citizen on issues concerning emission.

The aim of this work is to design and develop an IOT based smart gas emission monitoring system.

In achieving this aim, the following objectives were pursued:

i. To identify the current gas emission monitoring system in use;
ii. To determine the workability of the gas emission monitoring system currently being used;

iii. To examine the limitations of the gas emission monitoring system in use;

iv. To recommend an effective gas emission monitoring system which is IoT based;

To carry out this study, the following questions were raised:

i. What is the recent gas emission monitoring system like?

ii. What are the challenges facing the existing gas emission monitoring system?

iii. What are the effective ways to monitor gas emission?

The study focuses mainly on the emission of CO, CO2, and NOx in Nigeria. So, the reason for this work came from the noticeable shortcoming observed in the management of gas emission, which results to hazardous environment.


Although previous research has variously suggested that there is a gas emission problem and suggested ways to solve them. This study wishes to critically analyse this problem and develop a 21st century solution to it. We believe that at the end of this study, we were able to identify the current gas emission monitoring system used, determine the workability of the gas emission monitoring system currently used, examine the limitations of the gas emission monitoring system used, and recommend an effective gas emission monitoring system based on IoT.
This will prevent the current level of negligence over gas emitted to the environment.

1.8.1 Design and Development

This can be defined as the rough stage where different ideas are brought together tried out until an initial plan is laid out. Richey (2014) opined that it is a type of inquiry unique to the instructional design and technology field dedicated to the creation of new knowledge and the validation of existing practice.

1.8.2 IOT Based

Kaivan (2013) opined that we are entering a new era of computing technology that many are calling the Internet of Things (IOT). Machine to machine, machine to infrastructure, machine to environment, the Internet of Everything, the Internet of Intelligent Things, intelligent systems— call it what you want, but it’s happening, and its potential is huge.

We see the IOT as billions of smart, connected “things” (a sort of “universal global neural network” in the cloud) that will encompass every aspect of our lives, and its foundation is the intelligence that embedded processing provides. The IOT is comprised of smart machines interacting and communicating with other machines, objects, environments, and infrastructures. As a result, huge volumes of data are being generated, and that data is being processed into useful actions that can “command and control” things to make our lives much easier and safer—and to reduce our impact on the environment.

1.8.3 Gas Emissions
Mason (2022) defined gas as one of the three fundamental states of matter, with distinctly different properties from the liquid and solid states. While (Oxford learner’s Dictionary) defines emission as the production or sending out of light, heat, gas, etc. Gas emission, however, is the release of greenhouse gases into the environment for a specified number of time. Greenhouse gases are harmful to the body and one of the causes of climate change hence the need for urgent concerns. 

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