Man’s imp act on global
environment system especially in the area of dust extraction is now at a scale
where it is disrupting. These dust
extractors varies in major ways.
environmental degration is, in turn contributing to health threat in this part
of the globe. Unfortunately most
factories, workshops which suppose to posses these machines for dust
extractions a re not having them thereby making dust a very dangerous threat to
to this ugly development it, is obvious that these factories and workshops can
do little or nothing to protect our environment from this poor state. It is therefore necessary that all and sundry
should join the crusade of eradicating dust from our environment thereby making
it clean. Although before now people
have tried to contribute their own quota in seeing to the end of the menace,
get lack of interest, finance has posed a hindrance to the realization of this
view of the above, we deemed it necessary that such a machine should be
constructed to the Mechanical Engineering workshop to eradicate dust and
thereby make the workshop environment clean and fit for students practical
The realization of this work started from our
supervisor who conceived the idea which we saw as a need, then we defined the
need and synthesized it, evaluate and came to a conclusion.
synthesis led us to drawing board by sketching and drawing to scale after which
the design required was chosen.
Fabricated and parts put together to form what we called a dust
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Letter of transmittal
Letter of release
Aims and objectives
Economic importance of a dust extractor
Uses of extractors (dust)
Improvement in previous ones
Sequence of operation
Cost of reporting
Market survey and value
Recommendation and conclusion
is a serious health hazard especially to the respiratory system. It can have a cumulative effect eventually
resulting in permanent damage to the health.
is the most dangerous and the most difficult to get rid off. The sharing and the large particles of dust
are not much of a problem as most of it falls to the floor quickly and lungs
have a built in mechanism which can eject relatively large particles.
particles that causes damage are normally in the range of 0.2 to 5 micron in
size (a micron is one thousand of a millimeter) and so small as t o be
invisible to the naked eye. They can
remain suspended in the air for hours. Even
if one cannot see any dust, the atmosphere may still be harming ones lungs. One is likely to breath 8 to 10 cubic meters
of air during and 8 hour working day most especially those working in the
engineering workshops that has to do with metal drilling (drilling, shaping
etc) drugs manufacturing industry, paint industry and food processing industry.
If the dust
in the air average out of 5 mg per cubic meter during that period, then you
will suck in 50gm (2 ounces0 of dust.
Most of this w ill be dealt with by the body’s own dust defence
mechanism the nasal hair and mucus lined walls of the air ways leading to the
lungs will swallow most of it. Only a
very tiny percentage of the dust is permanently trapped in the lungs but it is
this which causes the damage.
some wood can cause skin complaints such as dermatitis.
Dust Extractors: With a small dust extractor couple with the
respirator to give a primary protection.
You must not need a huge powerful machine it w ill help to keep the
workshop clean and you can use it with it’s flexible hose to cover up the
sharing and remove dust which has settled on surfaces. Because you have a wood turning lathe you can
quickly turn up a wooden adaptor to accept the hose form your domestic vacuum
cleaner to give you a handy extension hose.
If you have other wood working machines such as a table saw you can
hookup the extractor to them when you need to use them.
DUST: The fan sucks the air into an oil
drum shaped container and then through an internal filter. These machines usually also make use of the
cyclone effect to reduce the load on the filter. This type of machine is cheaper, takes less
space, has superior filtration and has a stronger suction for hovering. The motor however is very noisy and the
airflow is much less than the external bag machine.
filter clog quickly reducing he air flow dramatically. The wood turner really need is a machine
which moves a larger volume of air at a lower speed breeze which wafts the fine
suspended dust away from the lathe into an efficient filter.
extractors setups for paint spraying welding which consist of a large three
sided box built around the work area.
Built into the rear of the box in an array of huge powerful fans which
sucks all fine dust and fumes through suitably design filters at the rear and
recalculate the air. They work well
because they move a very large volume of air.
dust extractor BB100, this is a low cost fine dust extractor (performance
rating 3) for the hobby workshop. It is
equipped with a 1000 watt vacuum cleaner motor which generates 195 cubic metres
per hour of air flow and provides enough suction to cater for even the smallest
of power tool inlets. The two stage
filtration system consist of a pleated paper filter, rather like a car filter,
surrounding the in let to the vacuum motor and a sub micron paper bag filter
which totally encloses the pleated filter.
sized waste, such as planer chippings, fall straight to the bottom of the drum
whilst the smaller dust particles are captured by the paper filters. The paper filters can be easily replaced as
necessary whilst the pleated filter can be a vacuum cleaned periodically. Typical uses for this extractor are small
band saws, bench mounted sanding machines and portable power tools such as
routers, planners and sanders. It also
serves as a very effective vacuum cleaner for keeping the workshop clean and
1.1 AIMS AND
project is aimed not only at providing a dust extraction machine in factories
and workshops but:-
a life equipment in the workshop which can be used for exhibition by students.
a machine (dust extractor0 which could be further modified and improved on, for
the extraction of dust from the atmosphere, which can favourably compete with
the best in the market.
1.1 ECONOMICS IMPORTANCE OF A DUST EXTRACTOR
extraction of dust fro the air
made dust extractors can be sourced in the market
dust extraction can only be achieved if handled by an experienced person
if proper maintenance culture is adopted.
OF A DUST EXTRACTOR
be used in extracting dust from the workshops
be produced and soled to factories thereby serving as a source of income to the
disease that could have been contacted from the air through dust.
The design and selection
of materials is governed by many factors, first, considering the physical
characteristics of the extractor i.e the shape, size and weight.
Design also to protect
man against his negligence and for the safety of the motor.
Design to work
effectively in any place of application.
The weather condition of
any place of its application was also considered, therefore it can be used any
where without being affected by the weather condition of the environment.
Metal cutting process
consist in removing a layer of metal from blank to obtain a machine part of the
required shape and dimensions and with a specified quality of surface finish.
A metal cutting tool is
the part of a metal cutting machine tool that, in the cutting process, acts
directly on the blank from which the finished part is to made. The metal cutting process accompanied by
deformation in compression, tension and shear by a great deal friction and heat
generation, tension and shear by a great deal friction and heat generation
governed by definite laws. In order to
cut the material from blank, the cutting tool should be harder than the
material to be cut, the tool should penetrate the blank and the tool should be
strong enough to withstand the forces developed in cutting.
In this construction of
these dust extraction machine, a lot of welding activities was done and moreso
forging in general. Welding is defined
as a group of processes in which metals are joined by bringing abutting surfaces
to a molten state. It facilitate light
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