Salesmanship is the act of usefully persuading prospective customers to
buy a product or service from which they can derive suitable benefits thereby
increasing their total satisfaction with the mutual aim of achieving the
company’s goals and objectives.
In view of this, the project critical analyse on salesmanship
performance in marketing of a company’s
product (A Case Study of Unliever Nigeira Plc).
The objectives of this study are to find out the relevance of
salesmanship performance in marketing of a company’s product and to ascertain
the effect of salesmanship activities in a competitive environment. Also to
examine the importance of salesmanship in helping the organization to achieve
corporate aims and objectives through the process of making the product
available to the customers.
In collecting data for this
research work, the primary are generated
by personal interview, opinion survey
questionnaire, telephone interview,
sample survey while the secondary sources were used but found to be
useful to the problem at hand and the in
carrying out this research, thirty (30)
questionnaires were distributed to the staff.
Conclusively, with regard to the research carried out the salesmanship
performance on the sales of the company’s products and the problems facing it,
the following recommendations are made.
Salesmanship is a very strong tool used in selling company’s products
and building good image for the organization, thereby leading to goodwill. With
these facts in mind, it is recommended that management should motivate their
salesmen adequately so as to help the organization to achieve its objectives.
It should be noted that salesmanship is a dynamic aspect of any company
activity, which greatly influence the service of the company in marketing of
The present distribution should be changed. The salesmen should be made
more functional, given freedom of determination of final selling price, pushing
the goods produced to stock and ensuring constant production system rather than
relying on order from customers and distributors before production.
Title page i
Table of content
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Statement Of The Research Problem
1.2 Objectives of the study 4
1.3 Research question 4 – 5
1.4 Statement of Research Hypotheses 5 – 6
and Limitation of The Study 6 – 7
1.6 Significance of the Study 7 – 8
1.7 Definition of Related
Background Of Unilever Nigeria Plc 9 – 12
2.0 Introduction 13
Of Salesmanship 13
2.2 Function of Salesmanship in an Organisation. 14
2.3 The Attribute of Salesperson 15
2.6. Sales Force Management 27 - 28
2.7. Sales Force Recruitment and
Selection 29 – 32
2.8. Sales Force Training. 32 – 33
of Sales Training 34
the sales Person 39
3.0 Introduction 43
3.1 Research design 43 – 44
3.2 Source of
Data Collection 44
3.3 Method of
data Analysis 45
3.4 Sampling Procedure and
Population. 46 –
3.5 Population Under Study 47
Method of Analysis 48
DATA REPRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND
4.0 Introduction 49
4.1 Data Presentation And
Interpretation 49 –
4.4 Summary Of Research Finding 64
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.0 Summary Of Findings 65
5.1 Conclusion 66
5.3 Recommendations 66 – 67
Bibliography 68 – 69
the act of usefully persuading prospective customers to buy a product or
service from which they can derive suitable benefits thereby increasing their
total satisfaction with the mutual aim of achieving the company’s goals and
In any business
practice, especially in those organizations where their products are to be
sold, the need for salesmanship is very important because it is used to
motivate customer at the point of purchase when they are about making their
decision to buy or not to buy. It also provides prospective buyers with
information and suggestions that persuades them to make favorable buying
decisions concerning the products or services.
equally be the deliberate and short term device comprising activities, which
include the line media adverting the products or services towards aiding sales
representatives and distributors to achieve more sales at the point of
marketing their products.
organization can achieve its objectives adequately, the relevance of
salesperson is important for the firm. Salesmen must be well trained, motivated
and encouraged for better performance to achieve organizational aims, goals and
be seen as an integral aspect of any organization decision making process and
it contributes a lot to the economy of the nation and most organizations do not
recognize the importance of adoption of salespersons practice in order to
effectively serve the target market.
The inability of some organization to
use salesmen that are well trained and motivated may impede the achievement of
the company’s aims and objectives. One of the marketing activities is to make
possible the transfer of products from the factory site to any household that
needs them for consumption purposes, because product could not get to the final
users or “the consumers” without marketing.
products and services are the lifeblood of every business, without sales,
company could not stay long in the market. During the period of depressed
business condition, many businesses have difficulties in getting orders; when
sales declines, factories close, workers laid off and many firm go out of business
and only those firms that can sell their goods and services will keep going.
Those that cannot withstand the market trend go out of business.
Salesmen are the
ambassadors of the company, and are very important to the organization which
the company must properly train and motivated adequately in order to achieve
the objective and aims of the organization.
OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
discovered that salesmen are very important to every business organization to
market their products and services, the following can serve as the research
What impact does
salesmanship have on the consumer in the area of competition?
salesmanship affect the sales and profit level of the organization product?
What is the
effect of economic depression on the sales force performance?
motivation and compensation really have effect on the salesmanship performance?
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
of this study are to find out the relevance of salesmanship performance in
marketing of a company’s product and to ascertain the effect of salesmanship
activities in a competitive environment.
It is also to
examine the impact of salesmanship activities in building favorable image for
the product and the company.
To examine the
contribution of salesmanship and their activities on the sales volume of the
To identify the
various areas of marketing problems facing the company and suggest ways and
technique for solving them.
suggestion and make recommendation to the management of the company on how
salesmen’s welfare can be improved and be best motivated.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
questions are deduced from the research problem and also stated to aid
research. They are used to identify the research problems and breakdown into
small parts, so that adequate attention can be given to it. The following
research questions are formulated from the research problems.
activities of salesmanship have any impact on the sales of the product or
How does salesmanship contribute to
the profit of the organization?
What are the benefits derived by
Unilever Nigeria Plc from salesmanship?
What are the problems relating to
salesmanship in the organization?
What is the impact of salesmanship on
1.4 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
According to Engels (1981) cited in Abimbola (1996)
answering research question and making hypothesis, defines an hypothesis as a
provisional or tentative proposal for the explanation of phenomena or situation
that has some degree of empirical substantiation or probability. It is a
suggested solution to a problem or a tentative explanation of the relationship
between two or more variables. It is a probability statement whose validity is
to be tested.
statement for the research work is as follows and it requires null and alternative
HO: There is no relationship
between salesmanship and acceptability of
Hi: There is a relationship between salesmanship
and acceptability company’s product.
HO: Salesmanship activities does not have
relationship with sales volume of the company.
activities have relationship with sales volume of the company.
3. HO: There is no relationship
between sales volume and increase in profitability in the company.
HI: There is relationship between sales volume
and increase in profitability in the company.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
researcher cannot cover the whole marketing organization in the country, the
researcher will study the operation of Unilever Nigeria Plc., because of the
impact of the organization in the market and Nigeria as a whole.
work will attempt to evaluate the contribution and the impact of salesmanship
in marketing a company’s product.
the constraints and problems encountered by the researcher in the cause of
conducting this research work and they are as follows:-
Financial constraints: As a student,
non availability of enough fund in the cause of conducting the project pose a
great hindrance because going to the organization everyday is a difficult task.
Literates: Many problems were encountered in getting relevant literature texts
on the finding or topic been researched.
Attention of key
personnel’s or officers: Most of the key officers of Unilever Plc to be interviewed were not always on sit
because most of them are always very busy and they are afraid that the
researcher could give the result to their competitors.
In all of these,
the researcher was able to make use of the available materials in completing
this research work.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF
This study is
aimed at the importance of salesmanship in marketing of company’s product in
and outside the geographical location of the country. The importance arises
because of the strategic position that salesmen occupied in the development of
our national economy.
This project work will focus
attention on salesmanship as it affects sales and profit levels.
In the economy
of high level competitive market, the study will be significant, thus, enabling
marketing practitioners to map out the best strategies to be used making the
sales force to compete favorably in the market. The project will be a relevant
source of reference material to students who will be interested in knowing more
about salesmanship and who may wish in future to carry out a similar research
or a further research on the subject.
It will equally
assist business managers and marketing executives to design ways to revive
OF RELATED TERMS
Salesmanship: The competitive salesmanship market the company’s
goods in the competitive market. Its aims at increasing the sales of the
existing products and not to create demand. The main motive is to clear the
stock of the manufacturer in a competitive situation.
Counter Salesmanship: This is the
act of passing on the goods in exchange for the money receive. Thus, the money
and goods pass the counter simultaneously.
Salesman; - this is a
person with the ability to persuade, prospect or customer to buy product or
service from which they can derive suitable benefit, thereby increasing their
Customer; - This is a
person who has bought the product or services, that is one who has accepted the
Sales force; - sales force
is a team of the company employee that serves as the link between the company
and customers. The field salesmen.
Sales; - sales is the
act of exchange of good for money or the act of selling goods and service.
Journey Circle: - This is the
period of time it takes a salesman to call upon or meet all the customers
allocated to him.
Prospect: - This is the
person who probably has the need for the proposition and more than likely has
the ability to pay for it.
Sales calls: - This is the
number of a customer a sales force serves in the market.
1.8 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF UNILEVER NIGERIA PLC
Plc (Registration certificate 113) is the oldest manufacturing company in
Nigeria. The company was established in 1923 to manufacture soap using local
Over the years,
the company diversified and expanded its operations to the production and marketing
of personal washing products which includes: toilet soaps, non-soapy
detergents, food and household products including toothpaste, Body creams,
lotion, baby care and hair care products.
strengthened its hold in food and household product through its merger with
Lipton Nigeria Limited in 1985, Chesebough products limited in 1988 and lately
1995 with Unilever Nigeria Limited which effectively transferred to Lever
Brother Nigeria (LBN) stewards business. In order to ensure sustained focus in
management, the company now have four manufacturing sites for its operation
from the original viz. Apapa, the premier and largest site, produces soap-such
as Key, Lux breeze, and Astral and personal product mainly toothpaste and the
Vaseline range. Recently, Lux soap was rebranded into Lux Suave with four
different flavours for customers to choose from.
oldest site at Aba is devoted to the production of Non-soapy detergents, powder
and bar. Here, the company makes such popular brands as Omo, Rim e.t.c. Third
and newest of the plants commissioned in 1983 is the ultramodern food factory
in Agbara, where the company produces Royco, Blue band, Close-Up, Lipton, Pears
among others and the Fourth factory at Oregun site where popular personal products
brands like Elida, Satin sheen, Lotus e.t.c. are produced. It is intended to
consolidate the production of all personal products including Toothpaste, Pond
and Vaseline range at this site ultimately.
The company is
fully committed to integration and self sufficiency and has made considerable
progress in its efforts towards local sourcing and developing of raw materials.
The tea plantation at Mambilla Plateau underscores the company’s unrelenting
drive for self-sufficient. The first crop of tea was harvested for test
marketing at the end of 1991 and a processing factory for the tealeaves has
been completed on site. The company has also built a large palm kernel mill at
the Aba factory to improve the supply of vegetable oil, an essential
raw-material for soap and edibles production. The company is also making
investment in oil palm plantation in order to improve its local sourcing for
example; the company holds 28% of the shares in Okitipupa oil palm Plc.
Plc range of quality products is distributed and sold at uniform price all over
the country through an established and tested distribution network using
appointed distributors, supervised by a well trained sales force. The company
has manpower capacity of about 2,200 employees in its four manufacturing sites
and various distribution points throughout the country. Of all the staffs, only
five are currently expatriates. This is the extent to which the company has
gone in training and developing local management force.
The objective is
to bring in expatriates who are willing to work in Nigeria and who will
contribute international experience and in exchange for Nigeria Unilever Plc.
Managers working oversea to obtain international experience. Expatriates are
therefore brought in to meet specific needs. The company also provides indirect
employment for over six thousand (6,000) people. Unilever Nigeria Plc has been
dedicated to the production of top quality brands for Nigeria for over seventy
years. Recently, the headquarter of the organization was moved to 1, Billing
way, Oregun-Ikeja, Lagos for effective management and easy location by its
respective clients and customers.
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