Dynamo is the name given to D.C generators. In the past, alternating
current generators are not common. Voltages are generated using dynamo where
the voltage generated are later converts to A.C. The dynamo I constructed had a
permanent magnet. This magnet in the form of circular disc which revolves
around turns of coil that is wound on a u-shaped former. When the disc is
rotated the magnetic field North / South pole cuts lines of force and e.m.f is
TABLE OF CONTENTS
of content iv
of the study 1
of the problem 5
and objectives 6
of the study 7
of the study 7
brief history of dynamo 8
Commutator (Electric) 13
Materials and methods 15
Sources of materials 16
Description of a dynamo 16
Circuit diagram 18
Block diagram 20
OF THE STUDY
The word Dynamo from “(from the Greek word
dynamics: meaning power) was originally another name for an electrical
generator and still has some regional usage as a replacement for the word
generator. After the discovery of the AC generator and that alternating current
can be used as a power supply. The word dynamo became associated exclusively
with the communicated direct current electric generator while on AC electrical
generator using either ship rings or rotor magnet would become known as an
A dynamo is an electrical generator that produces
direct current with the use of a commutator. Dynamos were the first electrical
generators capable of delivering power for industry and the foundation upon
which many other later electric power conversion devices were based including
the electric motor, the alternating current alternator and the rotary
converter. Today the simple alternator dominates large scale power generation
for efficiency, reliability and cost reasons.
A dynamo has the disadvantages of a mechanical
commutator besides; converting alternating current to direct current using
power rectification devices (vacuum tube or more recently solid state.) is
effective and usually economical.
The faraday disk was the first electric generator.
the horseshoe shape magnet (A) created a magnetic field through the disk (D)
when the disk centers toward the rim. The current flowed out through the sliding
spring contact m, through the external
circuit and back into the centre of the disk through the axle. The operating
principle of electromagnetic generators was later called Faraday’s law, is that
an electromotive force is generated in an electrical conductor which encircles
a varying magnetic flux. He also built the first electromagnetic generator,
called the Faraday- disk, a type of homopolar generator, using a copper disk
rotating between the poles of a horseshoe magnetic. It produced a small DV
voltage. This was not a dynamo in the current sense, because it did not use a
commutator. This design was inefficient, due to self counseling counter flows
of current in regions that were not under the influence of the magnetic field.
While current was induced directly underneath the magnet, the current would
circulate backwards in regions that were outside the influence of the magnetic
field. This counter flow limited the power output to the pickup wires and
induced waste heating the copper disk later, homopolar generators would solve
the problem by using an array of magnets arranged around the disk perimeter to
maintain a steady field effect in one current flow direction.
Another disadvantage was the output voltage was
very low, due to the single current path through the magnetic flux. Faraday and
others found that higher, more useful voltages could be produced by winding
multiple turns of wire into coil. Wire windings can conveniently produce any
voltage desired by changing the number of turns? So they have commutator to
produce direct current. Independently of Faraday, (The Hungarian) Anyas Jedlik
started experimenting in (1827) with the electromagnetic rotating devices which
he called electromagnetic self-rotors. In the prototype of the single pole
electric starter, both the stationary and the revolving parts were
About 1856 he formulated the concept of the dynamo
about six years before Siemens and Wheatstone but did not patent it as he
thought he was not the first to realize this. His dynamo used, instead of
permanent magnets, two electromagnets placed opposite to each other to induce
the magnetic field around the rotor, it was also the discovery of the principle
of dynamo self excitation.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Before the connection between magnetism and
electricity was discovered, electrostatic generators were used. They operated
on electrostatic principles such generator generated very high voltage and low
current. They operated by using moving electrically charged belts. The charge
was generated using either of two mechanisms. Electrostatic induction and the turboelectric
effect. Because of their inefficiency and the difficulty of insulating machines
that produced very high voltages, electrostatic generators had low power
ratings and were never used for generation of commercially significant
quantities of electric power.
Currently, the negative impact of fossil fuel to
our environment and the increasing rate of global warming and green house gases
has made our environment unsafe and these is need to look for an alternative
source of energy from natural source that can be environmentally friendly and
yet still solve the energy need to our population. Also the epileptic power
supply in developing countries has necessitated for another power source that
will be constant and readily available.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The principle of operation and the technical
know-how of simple dynamo helped a lot in the application an construction of
wind turbine and the larger hydro-electric that has contributed immensely to the
generation of very huge electrical power source to the national grid
source. The objective of this project
was to design and construct a simple dynamo using as far as possible locally
available materials which would provide cheap means of generating energy to
power source of our electronics. The objectives of the project therefore are to
design and construct a simple dynamo from electromagnetic induction mechanism.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The work will help solve the energy need of our
society as it will generate alternative energy source. Specifically, many
people benefit from this work as it provide simple, mobile and alternative
sources of power to cyclist, part of camps at any given time or place.
Finally, this work has help to enlighten the
society on how to utilize locally available electronics in construction of
dynamos for the production of light.
1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY
This work will try to design and construct a
simple dynamo using simple electronic components readily available in our local
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