has remained a formidable sector in the life wire of every society. For a
meaningful life and co –existence in the society, proper use of communication
techniques is very necessary.
work was born as a result of concern the
dwindling nature of communication in the developing countries, bedeviled by
problems of both economy and technological set back as a result of which our
communication system has remained a child of misfortune.
We commend this book, therefore to all
communication students who are acquire skills and knowledge in the different
higher institutions all over the country. To media owners, we hope that this
research work will help to improve their livelihood which has been seriously
threatened by these known and unknown problems. To those practicing
communicators who are struggling day and night to improve and better their
skills in the filed. We hope that a context with this book will help restore
their lost hope and confidence
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
Approval page III
Statement of the
existing problems 1
Importance of the
Objective of the
Literature review 13
literature review 39
limitations of study 41
Research Questions 42
Research Analysis 46
considered the ever widening horizon between the third world communication
order in which we have unfortunately found ourselves and the counterpart in the
computer controlled worlds, (the developed countries).
We could not help feeling that sense
of consciousness to brace up with the challenges caused by this imbalance, this
feeling has today motivated us into embarking on this laudable project. A
genuine and committed pursuit to the amelioration, if not outright solution to
these seemingly unattainable problems that bed evil our young but promising
third world communication order.
OF THE EXISTING PROBLEMS
is synonymous with understanding when communication does not end with proper
decoding, it means that understanding has been lost understanding can be
impaired by a number of factors, prominent among them is noise. Noise is any
factor in the communication process that does not enhance the proper
understating of the encoded message.
Noise is one of the most difficult
problems that effect, both the print and broadcast media. In broadcast media it
comes in form of hooting noise, poor grammatical expressions etc. While in the
print, anything that tends to derail the readers mind from the proper
understanding of the encoded message is noise. Noise could be in form of wrong
spellings, wring usage of words as well as wrong punctuation’s .
In interpersonal communication, noise
could come in the form of shabby dressing of the communicator, a handkerchief
bulging from the pocket of the communicator, or bad make – up. When the encoded
message is distorted as a result of noise, understanding will be adversely
effected, the essential of such communication will therefore be defeated.
Another major problem that face
communication in developing countries is language problems. For a communication
process be seen as successful, the decoding must be an indication of proper
understating. In country like Nigeria,
there are about 250 ethnic groups and
several language as well as dialects. Our use of English language is most times
hampered by the intrusion of our local and sectional dialects.
Mr. Chudi Amafili and Mr. AL. Gwe seem
to recognize this in their unpublished lecture material on radio and television
production. They advice thus.” The announcers voice must be natural a universal
voice, one not tied to any local or sectional dialects. It is only anaive
mind who will not understand the extent of damage, this above mentioned factor
can cause in our communication process. English language is not our mother
tongue. It is our second language and therefore one whose usage is most likely
to be affected by the underlying factors
in our first language. The Yoruba’s for instance omit the letter “H” in the
pronunciation of English words because of the restrictions in their language.
The Hausas and the I bos are not free from this dialectic problem. This affect
them both in pronunciation as well as pitch variations.
This language problem does not stop
here, Mr. Mbaachu, the personnel manager to Nigeria coal co-operation Enugu in
his unpublished paper argued that it is only when we are using our mother tongue
for communication that we are at liberty even to the extent of inventing words,
which according to him, is not the same when we use other people’s lnguage.
According to him when one is involved in another person’s language on remains a
learner and never an experts. No wonder them many communication experts
advocate that local language media house
should be established in the local areas to take care of majority of people in
remote area. The next major problem, according to Mr. Mbaachu is the dynamic
nature language both local care of majority of people in remote area. The next
major problem, according to Mr. Mbaachu is the dynamic nature language both
local and foreign. According to Mr.
Okenwa, the former Head of department of mass communication, Institute
of Management and Technology (IMT) Enugu,
Conventional English demanded that one uses “ you are welcome “ as a response
to an expression of thanks. This is not the same with what use to apply a
couple of years ago another major problem that besieged communicators in the
under developed countries like Nigeria,
is lack of modern communication gadgets / equipment. Reginald Okochi, the press
secretary to the Enugu State Government, in his address to the 1999.
Association of mass communication students (ASMACS) IMT Chapter lamented his
woes, when he was covering the presidency as a radio Nigeria reporter. He narrated the
pains and frustrations they suffered when their counterparts in overseas, aided
by their very sophisticated gadget, were able to punch their news to their
studios, even from their presidential dateline, while he and his colloquies
waited to fax their news at the nearest business centre. What a frustration ?
When one listens to telephone
interview over the voice of America
he will be forced to wonder there is nothing wrong with our local media house
whose interviews and remote productions generally are riddled with noise and
distortions and distortions. Our telecommunication system, station transmitters
and even our studio equipment are so problem ridden, that they frustrate the
efforts of our head working communicators.
Underdevelopment is indication of the
poor state of economy of the country involved. It is another way of saying that
a country is poor. Poverty is one of the greater set backs on the thirds world
communication system. Its is almost foundation years now that the Nigeria broadcasting co-operating (NBC)
issues licenses to private proprietors to establish and operate their own
electronic media house, but till now only clappers broad, many system
television and few other’s have been able to meet up the deadline not
withstanding the further shift of the deadline. This situations can largely be
attributed to the poor economic situation in the country.
Almost all our media, both government
and privately owned ones are suffering from the problems posed by obsolete
equipment. Radio stations such as Enugu
state Broadcasting station collapses and ressurates at relatively short
intervals. When Reginald Okochi was comforted with the question regarding the
above mentioned station, during the 1999 ASMACS
week he confessed that the problem has persisted because of lack of fund
“bad economy” The last problem which is not the least among other problem is, the
problem posed by the government and the law. The relationship between the press
and the government has been described by many known communication scholars “an
adversary relationship” the type of relationship that exist between the cat and
A major problem exist between the two parties in the area of control of media
Another problems of which is not
lesser than the first is in the area of disclosure of source of information
especially when it is a pre –requisite to the discovery of the truth in the
wittiness box. The journalist believe and hold tenaciously to the fact that
they should be allowed to hold back their source from whom they received
information in confidence. According to them, they can not serve two masters at
a time, their conscience and their inquisitors. The journalist believe that an
undertaking given a journalist not to miscue the information is a matter of
conscience. In a lead judgement delivered in Austrian in an appeal court, the judge helds “ Interalia”.
“No” one doubts that editors and
journalists are sometimes made the repositories of special confidence which
from motives of interest as well as honour, they would preserve from public
disclosure, but the law was faced at comparatively early stage of the growth
of rules of evidence with the questions
of how to resolve the conflicts between the necessary of discovering the truth
in the other hand, he obligation of of secrecy or confidence, which an
individual called upon to testify may in good faith have undertaken to a party
or other persons”
IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY
usefulness of this research study to mass communication students, can be seen
in very many ways. This study will help these future communication problems.
This work can be kept in the library for reference purpose. They will have
access to read, comment and criticize it. Also this study will widen their
knowledge, mass communicator already in the field, will benefit from this study
too. When they read this work, it will improve their skills expose them, to
know their past mistakes.
This work will help media proprietors,
whose livelihood is seriously confronted by these numerous problems. For those
who are not in mass communication but make use of communication in solving
their daily problems. We hope that this work will be very useful to them in
improving understanding and efficiency.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
This sub- heading of the introductory chapter of the
course of study “communication and it’s problems, indeveloping countries” is
meant and designed to critically explain to the barest minimum of what
activated both our physical and intellectual effort in embarking on this
Francis . J. Bergin, in this practical
communication and in “communication pedagoguery by Dr . D.C Aniakor” they
pointed out that it has been found out that the course of communication
isinvestable as far as human existence is concerned. Communication is the soul
of any relationship. They also confirmed that any relationship that lacks good
communication network is definitely bound to be problematic contributed and
converted a good number of areas of significance communication instance. The
types of communication, communication channels, media of communication and
This study as a matter of fact is
deemed necessary to improve the standard of communication, as adequate and
sound communication ensure health relationship between people, and thus improve
some of human problem.
This study will focus attention on the
area of language problems, problems encountered as result of inadequate
communication equipment, devastating economy, neglect to traditional models of
communication and others.
“Practical communications” by Francis. J. Bergine (Second
edition) published in 1981 by Pitman Publishers.
(1920 – 90s) by Dr. DC Aniako
Mr Amafili Chudi
and Aligwe H.N” Unpublished works on radio and television production”.
Mr. Mbaachu, Nigeria cola
co-operation ;An unpolished paper”
Nwaognuyama Emeka “An Unpublished materials on law and ethics.
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