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Climate change has a lot of effect on food and nutrition security in Nsukka local Government Area. The study was carried out to determine the effect of climate change on food and nutrition security of households in Nsukka Local Government area. The study was a cross sectional survey. The study involved four hundred households in Nsukka Local Government Area. The study showed that indicators such as flooding, drought, high sunshine intensity, and low sunshine intensity affects food and animal productions, thereby leading to poor yield and animal death. Food and nutritional security were determined using Food Security Survey Module, and food frequency questionnaire. The results shows that more than half (57.0%) of the households were mildly food insecure. Only 33.3% were food secured, and 9.8% were moderately food secured. There was a relationship between food security and climate change in Nsukka local government area. Food security had no relationship with climate change as there was no significant (p>0.05) relationship between food security and climate change indices. Thus there was significant (p>0.05) relationship among the climate change indices in Nsukka Local Government area. The government should integrate issues of climate change as well as adaptation strategies into the national development plan since the climate change risks is not only to agriculture development, but to the country’s general development and sustenance of the entire citizenry.


TITLE PAGE                                                                                     i
CERTIFICATION                                                                              ii
DEDICATION                                                                                    iii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                                                                                      iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                      v
LIST OF TABLES                                                                                                  viii
LIST OF FIGURES                                                                                                ix
ABSTRACT                                                                                                          x

1.1 Statement of problem                                                                                       
1.2 Objectives                                                                                                          8
1.3 Significance of study                                                                                          9  

2.1 Concept of climate change                                                                                  10
2.2 Indicators of climate change                                                                                11 
2.3 Causes of climate change                                                                                      12
2.3.1 Greenhouse gases                                                                                              12
2.3.2 Combustion of fossil fuels                                                                                 12
2.3.3 Deforestation                                                                                                      13
2.3.4 Population                                                                                                          13
2.4 Concept of household                                                                                           13
2.4.1 Government definition                                                                                       14 
2.4.2 Economic definition                                                                                           14
2.4.3 Social definition                                                                                                 14
2.5    Concept of Food Security 15
2.5.1 Food security and food system                                                                          15
2.5.2 Element framework of food security                                                                 18 
2.6 Relationship between climate change food and nutrition security                       21
2.7 Solution to climate change                                                                                   25
2.7.1 Wind Power 25
2.7.2 Green Buildings 26
2.7.3 Methane Leaks 26

3.1 Study design                                                                                                           28
3.2 Area of study                                                                                                          28
3.3 Population of study                                                                                                29
3.4 Sample and sampling techniques                                                                           29
3.4.1 Sample size                                                                                                         29
3.4.2 Sample procedure                                                                                               30
3.5 Preliminary activities 30
3.5.1 Preliminary visit                                                                                                 30
3.5.2 Training of the research assistants                                                                     31
3.6 Data collection                                                                                                      31
3.6.1 Questionnaire administration                                                                             31
3.7 Data analysis                                                                                                         31

4.1 Socio economic characteristics of the respondents                                              33
4.2 Present Climate change indices in Nsukka local government Area                     37  
4.3 Frequency of food consumption                                                                           39
4.4 Food security of the respondents                                                                  44
4.5 Relationship between food security and climate change
 indices in Nsukka local government Area                                                                  45
5.1 Conclusion                                                                                                  48
5.2 Recommendation                                                                  49
References                                                                                                          51
Appendix   57


3.1 List of communities in Nsukka local government                                               29

4.1 Socio economic characteristics of the respondents                                              34

4.1b socio economic characteristics of respondents                                                   36

4.2 Present Climate change indices in Nsukka Local Government Area                   38
4.3 Frequency of food consumption                                                                           41

4.3b Frequency of food consumption (Contd.)                                                           43

4.4 Food security of the respondents                                                                  44

4.5 Relationship between food security and climate change
indices in Nsukka Local Government Area                                                              46
4.5b Relationship between food security and climate change 
indices in Nsukka Local Government Area                                                                47



Climate change is one of the topical and tropical issues facing the world (Ikyase and Ihoh, 2014).  FAO (2016) stated that the effects of climate change on our ecosystems are already severe, and widespread and ensuring food security in the face of climate change is among the most daunting challenges households and human-kind. While some of the problems associated with climate change are emerging gradually, action is urgently needed now in order to allow enough time to build resilience into agricultural production systems. Climate change causes new patterns of crops, cultivation and humans and animal disease, and causes new risks for food security, safety and human health. Effects of climate change may be positive or negative, resulting from the complex interactions of temperature and precipitation (Rashid et al., 2016). On the basis of well-established evidence from the past 20 years, there is now a broad consensus among scientific organization and approximately 97% of the climatologists that human generated greenhouse gas emissions are the main cause of climate change (Iffat et al., 2017).

The phenomenon of climate change is global but its impacts are varied and mainly detrimental to the largely tropical arid and semi-arid areas as in sub-Sahara Africa that is most vulnerable, with negative developmental consequences for the continent and its households. This is because about 70% of the people of Africa live in rural areas and mostly depend largely on agriculture and natural resource based activities for their livelihoods. These livelihood options are dependent on climate-sensitive factors making the households vulnerable. Already, population increase is putting pressures on food production and climate change adds further stress because food production is highly dependent on the environment. Therefore for Africa that is more dependent on climate-sensitive resources, change in climate is the occurrence that negatively impacts on its natural ecological systems to retard capacity for human development and food security. Adequate food production on the continent will ensure enhanced livelihood and nutrition security to achieve sustainable development and general welfare of the people. Climate change is thus a development issue and not only an environmental concern for households and Africa (Antwi, 2013).

It is widely recognized that climate change is already having a significant impact on human health and will even more so in the future: affecting the basic prerequisites for maintaining good health such as ensuring clean air, water, food security, shelter and freedom from disease. Climate change is having a profound impact on food security affecting food availability, access, utilization and stability of the food system, thereby impacting nutrition security of the households. It will have a significant impact on food production and distribution channels, households assets and on purchasing power and market flows in the future. Ensuring that good quality and nutritious food is available and affordable is also one of the key factors for reducing the growing threat of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs), such as heart disease, stroke, cancer and diabetes. Furthermore, latest scientific research on early development indicates that Non-Communicable Diseases risks are impacted by the developmental environment, such as mother’s diet in the fetal and postnatal periods (including over- and under-nutrition), which shape the development and function of specific organs; increasing risk of developing chronic conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood (Pernille et al., 2011).

WHO (2018) reported that climate change does not only impact social and environmental determinants of health such as clean air, safe drinking water, nutrition and food security, but it also has major consequences upon food production systems and food safety. Antwi (2013) reported that in the 1970s and 1980s, climate change was seen more as an environmental issue, in the 1990s the focus was on power production and transport, and later in the early 2000s, the focus shifted to economic and energy issues. In more recent times, climate change phenomenon is regarded as a major threat to human security and attention is focus on the different aspects. The focus on various aspects of human security is as a result of competition for limited scarce natural resources, especially arable land and water, in the face of increasing population mainly in dry sub-Sahara Africa. Sub-Sahara Africa is mainly hot and dry and depends on surface water and ground water for freshwater supplies (Pernille et al., 2011).

Climate change is a threat to Africa, one of most vulnerable region to climate variability and change due to the sensitive economies, multiple stresses, low resilience, endemic poverty, weak institution, recurrent droughts, complex emergencies and conflict (Ikyase and Ihoh, 2014). Some of these devastating effects include volcano, landslide, erosion, flooding, drought, pests and diseases. These factors in turn impact on agriculture and consequently threaten food security (Osuafor and Nnoromled, 2014). Climate change causes floods and droughts as witnessed in parts of Africa which has led to series of health implications. For instance, rift valley fever which afflicts both human and livestock is related to heavy rainfall, and so are cholera bacteria. Increased temperature and related heat and drought are known to negatively affect animals and plant health and production. These developments can reduce agricultural labour potential of humans needed to support and manage farms, and cost of food production will also increase, and translate into higher food prices which in turn is likely to impact on food security leading to under-nutrition on the continent (Antwi, 2013).

Anino et al. (2013) also reported that climate change can directly results from human activities that change the composition of the global atmosphere. Climate related stresses and shocks already figure prominently in the lives of many of the world’s people, particularly the poor. The manifestations of these devastations include storms, floods and droughts. Often, these events result into terrible experience for the affected individuals like loss of livelihoods and life. Climate shocks wear down long term opportunities for human development, undermining productivity and eroding human capabilities. No single climate shock can be attributed to climate change; however climate change is ratcheting up the risks and vulnerabilities affecting the poor. It further adds stress on already overstretched coping mechanisms and traps people on downwards spiral of deprivation. Impacts of these devastations lead to persistence vicious cycle of poverty which culminates to malnutrition and deficiency diseases of households.

Nigeria’s climate has been changing, evident in: increases in temperature; variable rainfall; rise in sea level and flooding; drought and desertification; land degradation; more frequent extreme weather events; affected fresh water resources and loss of biodiversity (Elisha et al., 2017). The durations and intensities of rainfall have increased, producing large runoffs and flooding in many places in Nigeria (Enete, 2014). Rainfall variation is projected to continue to increase. Precipitation in southern areas is expected to rise and rising sea levels are expected to exacerbate flooding and submersion of coastal lands (Akande et al., 2017). Droughts have also become a constant in Nigeria, and are expected to continue in Northern Nigeria, arising from a decline in precipitation and rise in temperature (Amanchukwu et al., 2015). Lake Chad and other lakes in the country are drying up and at risk of disappearing (Dioha and Emodi, 2018; Elisha et al., 2017). Temperature has risen significantly since the 1980s (Enete, 2014, 234; Federal Ministry of Environment, 2014). Climate projections for the coming decades reveal a significant increase in temperature over all the ecological zones (Akande et al., 2017). This study will therefore focus on climate change, food and nutrition security status of households in Nsukka L.G.A of Enugu state, Nigeria.
1.1 Statement of problem
In the recent past climate change has emerged as a national international issue and its effect has since been identified in various aspects of human life. Most importantly is its effects on food and nutrition security of households, especially nutrition status of children under five years.

Achieving food and nutrition security is a challenge on a planet with sufficient food for all and despite significant reductions in extreme poverty, there is still 925 million undernourished people (PMHCH, 2012). Iffat et al. (2017) stated that more than 2.5 billion people worldwide depend more or less directly on agriculture for livelihood, the availability of resources is a matter of survival. Nutritional deficits during a child's first 2 years of life increase the risk of recurring illness, cognitive impairment and faltering growth. Without proper nutrition, newborn and young children can face irreversible damage to their cognitive development which impact educational performance, reducing opportunities over life time (PMHCH, 2012).

FAO (2015) reported that climate change is seen as a significant “hunger-risk multiplier” (Pernille et al., 2011) also added that the risk of hunger as result of climate change is expected to increase by 10% to 20%more than would be expected without climate change. In fact, some forecasts anticipate 24 million additional malnourished children by 2050 (FAO, 2015), (Pernille et al., 2011). Sub-Saharan Africa is likely to be worst affected region by 21%. FAO (2015) reported that poor health and under-nutrition in turn further undermine people’s resilience to climatic shocks and their ability to adapt. WHO (2018) reported that our climate is rapidly changing with disruptive impacts, and that change is progressing faster than any seen in the last 2,000 years.
Currently, over half billion of children are living in an area with extremely high level of flood occurrence, and nearly 160 million live in areas of high drought severity (Iffat et al, 2017). Iffat et al. (2017) also reported that out of the 530 million children in flood-prone areas, nearly 100 million already lack access to safe drinking water and over 270 million already lack access to sanitations. Approximately 130 million children in high drought zone do not have access to sanitation and/or safe water.
Already today an estimated 600 million , almost 1 in 10 people in the world  fall ill after eating contaminated food and 420,000 die every year,  a figure that is expected to grow due to changes in the climate that alter the agricultural and manufacturing environment, as well as influence human, animal and pest behaviours (WHO,2018). FAO, (2016) reported that in spite of considerable progress, almost 800 million people are chronically undernourished, 161 million under-five year olds are estimated to be stunted. At the same time 500 million people are obese and 2 billion lack the essential micronutrients they need to live healthy. Population and income increase as well as urbanization are driving increased and changing food and feed demand.

In Nigeria, the prevalence of child malnutrition in children under age 5 was 31% in 2013 (WHO, 2015). Nigeria has the second highest burden of stunted children in the world, with a national prevalence rate of 32 percent of children under five. An estimated 2 million children in Nigeria suffer from severe acute malnutrition (SAM), but only two out of every 10 children affected is currently reached with treatment. Seven percent of women of childbearing age also suffer from acute malnutrition (UNICEF, 2015). WHO (2015) reported that  Nigeria had an  estimated 137,600 diarrheal deaths in children under 15 years old in the baseline period of 2008 due to climate change. Under a high emissions scenario, diarrheal deaths attributable to climate change in children under 15 years old is projected to be about 9.8% of the over 76,000 diarrhoeal deaths projected in 2030. Although diarrheal deaths are projected to decline to approximately 43,500 by 2050 the proportion of deaths attributable to climate change will rise to approximately 14.2%. 

1.2 Objective
General objective
The general objective of the study was to determine the effect of climate change on food and nutrition security of households in Nsukka local government area.

Specific Objectives
The specific objectives of the study were to;

i. determine the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of households in Nsukka local government area.

ii. identify the climate change indices in Nsukka local government area.
iii. determine the effect of climate change on food and nutrition security of households in Nsukka local government area

iv. find out the relationship between climate change, food and nutrition security of households in Nsukka local government area. 

1.3 Significance of the study 
The findings of this study will be of immense benefit to government in fighting food and nutrition problems as it will provide a clear relationship between food security, nutrition security and climate change.
More so, the results and findings from this research will not only contribute to existing academic literature but can be used by the  government, researchers, policy makers, and other relevant stakeholders to develop and implement strategies that can uplift the lives of people living in the rural areas as it relates to food security.

Thus this study will be useful to the policy maker, government, health agency, researcher, mass media as well as non-governmental organizations, scholars and consumers in addressing issues related to food and nutrition security. It will also form a baseline information for the nutritionist and dietitians.

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