subject matter of this work is “challenges facing the media in Dissemination of
information” in carrying out the research work, the researcher adopted the
survey design using the questionnaire measuring instrument; this was to measure
the public’s opinion, to ascertain about the media in information
dissemination. The researcher further the study by adopting representative
sample of the wider population by using non-probability sampling method or
judgment method to find out from the public the challenges facing the media in
dissemination of information. The researcher used chi-square to analyze the
data that was collected from the respondents; it is observed that, there are
challenges faced by the media in dissemination of information. Some of the challenges facing the media are
posed by the government. The government should allow the media to exercise the
law of “freedom of information” this will go a long way in aiding the media to
gather information and disseminate to the heterogeneous audience.
TABLE OF CONTENT
of Content vii
Background of the Study 1
Statement of the Research Problem 10
Objectives of the Study 11
Significance of the Study 12
Research Questions 13
Research Hypothesis 13
Theoretical Framework 14
Scope of the Study 15
of the Study 16
of the Terms 17
Sources of Literature 20
Review of Relevant Literature 20
Summary of Literature 33
Research Design 36
Area of the Study 38
Research Population 38
Research Sample 39
Sample Technique 41
Instrument of Data Collection 41
Method of Data Collection 42
Method of Data Analysis 43
Expected Result 43
AND INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGS
Data Presentation and Analysis 45
Analysis of Research Questions/Hypothesis 60
Discussion of Result 67
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
OF THE STUDY
Communication as known everywhere has
developed over a number of centuries. The sophisticated and complexity which
characterized human communication in the modern world are the result of a very
long and sustained effort by human beings to improve on one of the most
fundamental aspects of their existence.
Thus, referring to this evolution, the
McBride commission has noted that, “As the world has advanced the task of
communication has become even more complex, in explaining this complexity,
McBride and his colleagues (McBride et al, 1981, P.3), have this to say “
throughout history, human beings sought to improve their ability to receive and
assimilate information about their surroundings at the same time to increase
the speed, clarity and variety of their methods for transmission of
information”- quoted in (Okunna, 1994 Page 1-2). Therefore, following the above assertion it
can be submitted that, the origin of the media and its responsibility to
disseminate information, most importantly in Nigeria context dates back to the
era of the early press in the year 1800-1929. It was the very first time
Newspaper emerged in the country in the name of “Iwe Irohin”.
However, the development of Nigerian press is
purely classified into three as follows, from 1800-1920 (Early press),
1927-1960 (National press), 1960-date (Modern or Contemporary press). These
were viewed as the chronological order of the evolution of print media.
Thus, in 1940, the Presbyterian Mission
established the first printing school in Calabar the reason for this, is to
increase the literacy level of the people as of then. And, in 1845, an Anglican
Missionary Rev. Henry Townsend, established another printing press as well as
printing school at the mission compound in Abeokuta. Five years later (1859),
Rev. Townsend moved forward to establish the first newspaper called “Iwe Irohin
fun awon era Egba at Yoruba”, Meaning newspaper for the Egba people and Yoruba.
Reverend Townsend’s major aim of establishing the newspaper was to increase the
reading culture of the Egba and Yoruba people so as to instill literacy desire
in them. He also, wanted to embark on Christian stewardship through impacting
education and literacy. Iwe Irohin also served as a potent political tool
against the British government, thereby informing the mass on the need to know
why the British must go.
As the paper was making
waves and facing all sorts of criticism, another paper was also established by
the Anglo West India, Robert Campbell, he follows Iwe Irohin up with Anglo
African with the year 1863. It was printed in Lagos states Campbell’s objective
of setting up the newspaper was to exploit the growing interest in Western
Education and Enlightenment in Lagos state in 1860 by providing cheap and
accessible materials which would educate, inform and entertain its reader. It
was the first paper in the country to present another side of the story as it
constituted on open competitor with Iwe Irohin.
After that, Richard Beale
Blaiz established the Lagos Time and Gold Coast Colony Advertiser in the year
1803-1883. The name of the paper reflected the joint administration of Gold
Coast and Lagos at the time. Thus, newspaper establishment journed through the
time, Zik established the West African Pilot, up till this day. It is important
to note at this juncture that, from the period of the early press and now,
there have been an immense function played by the media in order to restore the
dilapidating and retrogressing state of Nigerian society.
Interestingly, as the year went by, there was
a tremendous dawn in the broadcast media. The radio and television emerged,
thereby making waves in the dissemination of information. Radio as a means of
communication relies on the use of electro-magnetic waves propagated through
space at the speed of light, radio messages were first received in Nigeria
through the empire service of the British Broadcasting Commission (BBC) in
1932, At this time, Prospective owners of radio had their transmission through
their sets which was wired to the post office. In 1936, radio transmission was
established with the commencement of transmission through the RDS (i.e. Radio
Distribution service) in Lagos. One feature of the program transmitted at this
time was low content of Nigeria or coral productions.
By 1948, there were ten “Wire” Wireless
stations serving about 80,000 subscribers in the country. This followed until
television came to Nigeria for the first time in 1956. When Queen Elizabeth II
came to Nigeria same years, the BBC came with a large contingent. The BBC
placed TV screens outside the assembly to enable those outside the gallery of
the house to watch what was happening. Nigeria takes credit as the pacesetter
in Africa in regards to television broadcasting. That notwithstanding,
television broadcasting started in Nigeria as a result of intense political and
ethnic rivalry. Account has it that, the first television in Nigeria was the
Western Nigeria television (WNTV); Ibadan, it is thus readily clear that, the
colonial maters did not make much use of television during their period of rule
as television came toward the end of colonialism in Nigeria. This was in
operation when Chief Obafemi Awolowo established the WNTV. He was said to have
has permission for access to the government owned national broadcasting
commission (NBC) so that he would reply to the allegation of act of perfidy
leveled against him by the actual grievance that eventually gave rise to
regional Broadcasting dates back 1953.
From the year 1953-1960, the Eastern Nigeria
television (ENTV) was established, then in April 1962 the federal government
started the Nigeria television service, channel 10 Lagos, which was headed by
T.O.S. Benson. After the civil war in the country there was significance
increase in television broadcasting. Almost all the twelve states of the
federation (as at 1972) had their own TV station. Then in 1976, the number of
stations had risen to nineteen. In 1977, the Nigeria Television Authority (NTA)
was established to function as an independent body. NTA was given charge over
television broadcasting in Nigeria; however, the 1979 constitution of the
Federal Republic of Nigeria later remover the exclusive power of the NTA in
television broadcasting in Nigeria. The constitution rather allowed for the
establishment and operation of broadcasting and stations by different state
governments, organization or individual subject to the president’s permission
(Okunna 1993, page 55).
At this point, it can be submitted that right
from the first day the mass media emerged in Nigeria starting with the print
media; the media have been playing the watch dog role in the society,
performing a number of functions which benefit the individual as a member of
the society. These range from “serious” information and educational functions
to “higher” functions like entertainment, information, dissemination,
education, advertising, socialization, promotion of culture, motivation,
mobilization, integration. They also play the role of agenda setting based on
issues that are controversial in nature, here the mass media set the political
agenda for the society by deciding what political topics people talk about etc.
NTA as one of the media organization has of the mass media to the audience,
e.g. election, child abuse, Kidnapping, issue of flooding, crime, war, fire
disaster, conflict, fuel subsidy etc; also print media e.g. Newspaper,
magazine, Journals, books are not left out.
But suffice it to say that, there are some
challenges on the part of the media in using all these channels listed above to
send information, thus making the actualization of the noble dream stressful,
even NTA a government owned channel has its own shortcomings in the area of
playing its roles effectively. Albert, it has been enslaved to the whims and
caprices of the political leaders and the government.
Another challenge that weakens the power of
Nigeria television Authority (NTA) and other media organization is poor
infrastructural facilities. As sobowale (1989: page 304) quoted in Okunna
(1994. P. 36) has observed with reference to Nigeria, such basic
infrastructural facilities as roads and transport system are in an abysmal
state of development; and this limits the work are the media practitioners in
gathering information. One can also consider the state of technological
expansion and advance in communication technology, with this media have found
it difficult to work effectively.
conclusion, it is submitted with respect that Nigeria television Authority
(NTA) has been disseminating information to the masses. But, at the same time
has in one way or the other demonstrated the challenges facing its discharge of
duties. Despite all odds, this research study will definitely bring changes.
OF RESEARCH PROBLEMS:
Despite all efforts made by the media to
tackle the challenges facing them, especially during military government era,
there are still Kinds of other problems which constitute threat to the power of
disseminating information to the masses. Indeed, it seems as if to say that
much has been not achieved in the area of their performance.
For this reason, this
research seeks to expose the extent the Nigeria media, NTA in particular is
tackling the challenges and the extent they have gone in keeping the masses
informed on the day to day events.
OF THE STUDY
The research work tends to know
political interest or sentiment imposes serious threat to effective
disseminating information on media?
economic factor takes precedence in the coverage of program by media?
technology factor restricts media from disseminating information to its target
the level of literacy of the audience help media in gathering and reporting
issues of the day.
OF THE STUDY
One of the basic functions of the media is to
provide the society with information based on accuracy, facts, truth, and
objectivity and to uplift our cultural heritage. The task of the researcher is
to find out the challenges facing the media most especially in the developing
countries like Nigeria.
This study will serve as a basic for carrying
out further research and evaluation of how the challenges in the media can be
faced bearing in mind that, what is obtainable in NTA station will also be
applicable in other media stations in the country. Therefore, there is hope
that the finding posted in the work will be beneficial to other students and
researchers attempting to research on a similar project.
is the nature of challenges facing the media in information dissemination?
the media have sufficient freedom needed for their operational efficiency?
the media work enough in reporting issues in high places of government
is the possible measures that should be used to enhance operation of the media.
H1 There are
serious challenges facing the media information dissemination.
H0 There are no
serious challenges facing the media in information dissemination.
media have sufficient freedom needed for their
media do not have sufficient freedom needed for
H3 The media work
enough in reporting issues in high places of government administration.
H0 The media do
not work enough in reporting issues in high places of government administration.
H4 There are
possible measures to be used to enhance operation of the media.
H0 There are no
possible measures to be used to enhance operation of the media.
This research study will be based on one of
the theories of the press which is libertarian theory. The reason why it is
suitable for the study is that, the theory is concerned on the perception for
freedom of the press; liberal philosophers like John start mill, Milton greatly
advance the advocacy for press freedom (Okoro, et al 2003, p.21).
In the main, libertarian theory prescribes
that; an individual should be free to hold and express opinion freely and
publish same. The theory does not see need for censorship since it acknowledge
the great potentials of human as rational being who can distinguish between
truth and falsehood, it further believes in the “self brightening process of
the free market place of idea”, where good ideas will eventually eliminate the
bad ones if all were granted free expression.
Therefore, the researcher used the theory to
back up the media especially the media in Nigeria
OF THE STUDY:
The scope of the study is covered within
Nigeria television Authority (NTA).
The researcher chooses to limit the sample
population to students and civil servants who watch television programmes drawn
from Enugu Network station, because majority of the government owned media like
NTA are situated in the state. The students of the institute of management and
technology (IMT), Enugu and the students of Enugu state university of science
and technology (ESUT), also some students from other higher institutions were
included; secondary school students were taken into account, because they are
greatly influenced by what they watch.
Also, the sample of civil servants was drawn
from both the federal and state civil services.
Definition of Terms.
- Challenges: It
means the hindrances or constrains which make the media not to execute their
duties effectively and efficiently.
- Media; In
this research study, the media simple means those medium or channel via
messages or information are passed across from the source to the heterogeneous
audience e.g. Nigeria Television Authority (NTA), Enugu state Broadcasting
services (ESBS), Federal Radio commission of Nigeria (FRCN) etc. for print
media we have newspaper, magazines like the Guardian, Daily Sun, Tell, Punch
- Dissemination; In
this research, it means a way by which the media carry out their social
responsibility in order to tell their audience what is happening within and
outside their society.
- Information; Programmes
of the media which are used to educate, entertain, mobilize, sensitize, inform
and socialize the masses concerning everyday activities within and outside the
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