major purpose of this research is to find out the causes of conflict between
Secretaries and Bosses in Anambra State owned Establishments. The population of
the study consists of 58 Secretaries in Anambra State Owned Companies. The
sample for the study was the total population of the Secretaries which is 58.
Three research questions were formulated which guided the study. Nine (9) items
structure questionnaire was developed validated and tested for its reliability.
The percentage method was used in calculation. The major findings of the study
That secretaries have more area of
conflict with their bosses than areas of mutual friendship.
The consequences of such conflicts affect
the progress of the establishment concerned.
That if the possible strategies or
procedures suggested can be adopted by the secretaries the conflict can be
is concluded that, it is important for the secretaries to have a good working
relationship with their bosses to stop the conflicts and achieve the goals of
the establishment, and bosses should provide or create a room for negotiation
between them and their secretaries.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
approval page ii
Table of Contents vii
Background of Study 1
Statement of the
Purpose of the
the study 5
the study 7
Meaning of a
Qualities of a
categories of secretary 19
characteristics of conflicts 23
literature review 32
Design of the study 34
Area of the study 34
Population of the study 35
Sample of the
for data collection 36
retrieval of the instrument 37
Method of data
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Summary of findings 44
the study 47
further studies 48
Appendix A 50
Appendix B 51
of the study
secretary is an assistant to an executive possessing mastery of office skills
and ability to assume responsibility without direct supervision, who displays
initiative, exercise judgment and takes decision within the scope to her
authority. The Webster Dictionary of English (2005) however, defined a
Secretary as one trusted with secret of or confidence of a superior, adviser,
confident or one employed to handle correspondence and manage routine and detailed work for a
superior. This depicts that a secretary is a skilled personnel who possess both
executive and personal attributes in managing the affairs of any organization
effectively and efficiently in order to achieve organizational objective. From
this description, Onasanya (1990) defines a Secretary as someone who possess
adequate knowledge of administration or organization and the ability to achieve
results through hard work and management of resources or people on behalf of
his/her boss. Its classification depends basically on experience and their
functions are diverse and this depends largely on the field of specification.
The cadre of secretaries tends to determine and at the same time modify the
function of such secretary.
to Rule and Byars (1983), performance is the degree of accomplishment of the
tasks that makes up on individual job, but the performance of these function
can be greatly inhibited by certain functions.
to Alancik and Fetter (1977) a job is satisfying when there is a match between
the characteristic of the job and the needs of the individuals. The
determinants include self-evolution, expectation, social norms, social comparisons,
commitment etc, for instance, if on e expects a job to be paying well, and it is not, them he/she will be
dissatisfied. Also if one is not evaluated up to the standard, she will also
not be happy (dissatisfied).
Secretary’s satisfaction leads to organization commitment, while
dissatisfaction result in behaviors is know to the organization. (Turnover, absentee’s,
low morale, etc).
who are dissatisfied with their work never reach psychological maturity. They
feel frustrated. Employees who like their jobs and other job related factors
will be loyal and devoted employees. However, employees who strongly dislike
and dissatisfied with their job or any other job related factors will often
exhibits these feelings by taking absent or by taking more convert actions to
disrupt the organization.
Conflict is a serious disagreement or argument. Conflict has become a feature
of labor management relationship in Nigeria while Secretaries and Bosses in the industries should work harmoniously
together for the betterment to the fulfilled in practice. Secretaries and
bosses tend to have opposite views. This is because of the divergence between
the expectation of management and labor in an Establishment.
of the problem
Secretary is flexible, technically good in their jobs and they are determined.
Public concern regarding the conflicts of bosses and secretaries in Nigeria has
been on the increase in recent times. It is observed that many qualified
secretaries desecrate their jobs and take to other professions entirely
different from Secretarial profession. Many Secretaries that choose to remain in
the profession do not seek ways of improving their management in an
the concern is more on the conflicts between Bosses and Secretaries; no mention
is ever made of the factors responsible of these conflicts. Certain questions
need to be asked in an attempt to recognize those factors that causes the
conflicts in state owned establishment.
of the Study
The major purpose of this study is:
To basically investigate some of the
causes of conflicts between Bosses and Secretaries in State owned
To examine the damages which conflicts
between bosses and secretaries caused to different industries
To find out the consequences of such
To suggest remedy and strategies for solving
conflicts between Bosses and secretaries in state owned establishment.
of the Study
The study is significant for the
The result of
the study will enable the Management to formulate a policy toward conflicts
resolution in establishment industries.
It will help to highlight some of the
factors which cause conflict between bosses and secretaries in a state
establishment (AHOCOL) so that management will appreciate the seriousness of the
The study will also enable the
management to formulate policies towards conflicts resolution in industries. It
will serve as a guide (especially in establishment industry) to enable them
prepare their minds on how to take the conflicts likely to come.
The information contain in the study
will be of assistance to students who might be interested in further research
into other areas of secretaries and bosses conflicts not covered by not present
What are the factors that cause the
conflicts between bosses and secretaries?
What are the damages caused by such
What are the method used in resolving this
conflict between bosses and secretaries?
of the Study
study was delimitated to the causes of problem between Secretaries and Bosses
in industries owned by the Government and to enable management to formulate a
policy towards conflicts resolution in industries.
Definition of terms
– Is an employee in an office, who deals with correspondence, keeps records and
makes management and appointments for a particular member of the staff.
– A boss is a person who is the head of a company, not merely in change of
subordinate workers but in charge of all lower level manager and supervisors,
sometimes called middle management.
– As a place where a business is carried on.
- An industry is a group of companies that manufacture products and services
which are closely related to each other.
- Is a social unit of people that is structed and managed to meet a need or to
pursue collective goals.
– refers to some form of friction,
disagreement or discord arising within a group
when the beliefs or actions of one or more members of the group are
either resisted by or unacceptable to one or more members of another group.
– This refers to all activities that require the control of physical movements
to be made.
– Secretaries ability to carryout the duties and responsibilities demanded to
Oxford Advanced Learners (6th edition)
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