BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY: A THREAT TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

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Product Code: 00002584

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ABSTRACT

The state of insecurity engendered by Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria, especially in the North-Eastern part of the country is quiet worrisome, disheartening and alarming. Terrorist attacks of the Boko Haram sect have resulted in the killing of countless number of innocent people and wanton destruction of properties that worth billions of naira through bombings. Thus, the Boko Haram scourge remains intractable to the government who appears helpless in curtailing/curbing their activities. The dynamics and sophistication of the Boko Haram operations have raised fundamental questions about national security, governance issue and Nigeria’s corporate existence. The major thrust of this project work is to investigate the activities of Boko Haram insurgency in Northern Nigeria and to underscore the urgent need for a permanent resolution of the crisis. The research work argues that most of the circumstances that led to this insurgency are not unconnected with frustration caused by high rate of poverty, unemployment, weak governance, religious fanaticism among others. It also addresses the effects of the insurgency which among others include serious threat to national interest, peace and security, internal population displacement, violation of fundamental human rights, debilitating effects on the entrenchment of democratic principles in Nigeria among others. The project recommends among others, the necessity to address poverty reduction, religious secularism and political re-orientation. The need for adequate collaboration and partnership between the government, non-governmental organizations, civil society organization as well as the individuals is also advocated. Finally, the need for the re-evaluation of the country’s domestic and foreign policies as a means of combating the menace of this domestic terrorism is also stressed.

 

Key Words: Boko Haram, Insurgency, Threat, Sustainable Development and National Security

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                                                                i

Certification                                                                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                                                                               iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                  iv

Table of Content                                                                                                                     v

Abstract                                                                                                                                   vii

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study                                                                                             1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                                          2

1.3       Research Questions                                                                                                    3

1.4       Objectives of the Study                                                                                               4

1.5       Scope of the Study                                                                                                      4

1.6       Significance of the Study                                                                                            4

1.7       Possible Limitations of the Study                                                                                5

1.8       Definition of Terms                                                                                                     5

1.9       Outline of Chapters                                                                                                    6

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.1       Contextualizing Terrorism                                                                                          7

2.1.1    Eight Signs of Terrorism                                                                                             10

2.2       Emergence of Boko Haram Insurgent in Nigeria                                                       11

2.3       Factors that Led to the Emergence of Boko Haram Sect                                           14

2.3.1    Rejection of Western Education and Values                                                              15

2.3.2    Religious Bigotry and Imposition of its Ideals                                                            15

2.3.3    Poverty, Unemployment and Ignorance                                                                     17

2.4       Theoretical Framework                                                                                              17

2.4.1    Structural Violence Theory                                                                                         18

 

CHAPTER THREE: HISTORY OF INSURGENCY IN NIGERIA

3.0       Introduction                                                                                                                22

3.1       History of insurgency in Nigeria                                                                                 22

3.1.1    Declaration of Niger Delta Republic                                                                          22

3.1.2    Nigerian Civil War                                                                                                     23

3.1.3    Movement for the Actualisation of the Sovereign State of Biafra                            25

3.1.4    Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta and Related

Insurgencies                                                                                                                26

3.1.5    Oodua People’s Congress                                                                                           28

3.1.6    Northern Arewa Groups                                                                                             28

3.1.7    Jama’atu Ahlil Sunna Lidawati wal Jihad (Boko Haram)                                            31

3.1.7        Jama’atu Ansaril Muslimina fi Biladis Sudan (Ansaru)                                              31

3.2          Causative Factors Behind Insurgency in Nigeria                                                        32

3.2.1    Land use and proprietary rights                                                                                 32

3.2.2           Growth of Social Class Awareness and Desire for Equality                                  34

3.2.3    Discrimination                                                                                                            36

3.2.4    Poverty                                                                                                                        37

3.2.5    Unemployment                                                                                                           40

3.2.6    Political Alienation                                                                                                      40

3.2.7    Religious and Ideological Discontent                                                                         42

 

CHAPTER FOUR: SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPLICATION OF BOKO-HARAM INSURGENTS

IN NIGERIA

4.0       Introduction                                                                                                                46

4.1       Chronology of Major Incidents of Boko Haram Insurgency                                       48

4.2       The Socio-Economic Implications of the Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria                        61

 

CHAPTER FIVE:  SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1       Summary                                                                                                                     67

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                                   69

5.3       Recommendation                                                                                                       69

References                                                                                                                  72

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      Background of the Study

Insurgencies has been as old as civilization but became most prominent after the September 11 2001 bombings of the United States by Al-Qaeda. The bombings were carried out on World Trade Centre which has adverse effects on the business activities of America and globally (Rogan, 2007).

 

Terrorism which has become a global phenomenon is a deliberate and systematic use of violence to destroy, kill, maim and intimidate the innocent in order to achieve a goal or draw national/international attention or demands which ordinarily may be impossible or difficult to achieve under normal political negotiation or on the battle field against a government army. Terrorism whether internationalized or localized is always politically motivated. Though it may also show other auxiliary motives include religion, economic or social reasons. These motives constitute the ideology of a case for which terrorism seeks solution or sympathy of all terrorist groups that have ravaged Nigeria. The Boko Haram is undoubtedly the most blood thirsty and destructive both in terms of its demonic brutality, mindless savagery and increasingly in scope of operation (Obioma, 2009). From Harmless group of 12 has in recent times increased to more than 10,000 violent members (Akpan et al, 2012). According to Eme and Ibietan (2012) “Boko Haram is an indigenous salafist group which turned itself into a salafist Jihadist in 2009. The group was founded by Mohammed Yusuf in 2002 in the city of Maiduguri with the aim of establishing a Sharia government in Borno State under former Governor Ali Modu Sheriff. He established a religious complex that included a Mosque and a school where many poor families from across Nigeria and from neighbouring countries enrolled their children”. From the beginning, the group made its manifest known: Rejection of western education, institutions, and agencies that go with it, including government institutions. It prefers to have a sharia law applied all over the country, but if that is difficult to grant, they would rather have a separate Islamic state carved out of Nigeria, where they can practice their religion unhindered. If this is not granted Nigeria, will be made ungovernable.

 

Government saw these demands as treasonable, unreasonable and unacceptable and in an attempt to purge the group of its excesses their leader Mohammed Yusuf died in 2009 from that year onwards under the assumption of a new leader named Abubakar Shekau, Boko Haram reinvented violence and began what can best be described as the bombardment of Northern Nigeria with such frequency and intensity that are quite unprecedented in history of violence in Nigeria. Those who escape death by day, sleep with one eye open by night. The Boko Haram has created widespread tension across Northern Nigeria and between various ethnic communities, interrupted commercial activities, frightens investors and generated concerns among Nigerians northern neighbours. This unprecedented state of terrorism by the Boko Haram sect in Nigeria has ruined the tranquility of the northern atmosphere and high rate of insecurity pervading northern region in particular and the nation/Nigeria in general is alarming and is a cause for serious concern to well-meaning Nigerians. It is for this reason that this paper is set and aimed at speculating the possible negative effect of Boko Haram terrorist activities on the economy of Northern Nigeria and by extension Nigeria.

 

1.2      Statement of the Problem 

The emergence of Boko Haram insurgency has introduced a terrorist dimension, hitherto unknown, into the criminal space in Nigeria. Series of bombings have been carried out by the sect, as well as taking hostage of innocent citizens. Even the United Nations Building in Abuja was not spared in the bombing spree. In rich as well as poor countries, terrorism exerts a heavy toll on national economies. It is inevitable that the economic impact of terrorism would be more felt in unsophisticated mono-cultural low-income economies than they would be felt in highly advanced, diversified industrial economies.

 

Therefore, the continued rise in terrorism activities in the country, if not checked, may result in greater investor apathy for the country and resulting in low inflow of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), and would make institutional investors look for other stable economies to invest their money. On the state of the country, when people feel insecure, their appetite to invest, to buy or rent from the product of investment reduces; and that is why all over the world, any country that radiates an environment of insecurity naturally repels investment initiatives from both the international community and its own local investors.

 

Hence, terrorism is a threat to the economic, political and social security of a nation and a major factor associated with underdevelopment; because it discourages both local and foreign investments, reduces the quality of life, destroys human and social capital, damages relationship between citizens and the states, thus undermining democracy, rule of law and the ability of the country to promote development (Adebayo, 2013). However, this research work is analyzing Boko Haram insurgency and its effect on sustainable development in Nigeria.

 

1.3      Research Questions 

To this end this work will be bounded by these research questions:

1.         What is the effect of Boko Haram insurgency on the socioeconomic development of Nigeria?

2.         What is the level of insurgent activities in North-Eastern part and by extension Nigeria as a whole?

3.         What are the ways of limiting the threat of Boko Haram insurgents and thereby bringing about sustainable development in Nigeria?

 

1.4      Objectives of the Study 

The general goal of this study is to speculate the possible negative effect of Boko Haram insurgency on sustainable development in northern part and by extension Nigeria, while the particular aims and objectives of this study are:

1.         To examine the effect of Boko Haram insurgency on the socioeconomic development of Nigeria.

2.         To examine the level of insurgent activities in North-Eastern part and by extension Nigeria as a whole and finally

3.         To identify ways of limiting the threat of Boko Haram insurgents and thereby bringing about sustainable development in Nigeria

 

1.5      Scope of the Study

This study on Boko Haram insurgency and its threat to sustainable development in Nigeria will cover the activities of the Boko Haram sect in Northern part of the country and its effect of the socioeconomic development of the country.

 

1.6      Significance of the Study

The following are the significance of this study:

1.         The findings from this study will educate the government and the general public on the extent of damage done by the activities of the Boko Haram insurgents in Nigeria and its effect of the socioeconomic development with a view of resolving the crisis.

2.         This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field thereby providing new explanation to the topic

 

1.7      Possible Limitations of the Study 

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund might tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection.

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time to be devoted for the research work.

 

1.8      Definition of Terms

Boko Haram: referred to by themselves as al-Wilāyat al-Islāmiyya Gharb Afrīqiyyah (Islamic State West Africa Province, ISWAP), (Daily Times of Nigeria, 2015) and Jamā'at Ahl as-Sunnah lid-Da'wah wa'l-Jihād‎‎, "Group of the People of Sunnah for Preaching and Jihad") (BBC, 2015), is an Islamic extremist group based in Northeastern Nigeria, also active in Chad, Niger and northern Cameroon (U.S. Department of State, 2013).

Insurgency:  is a rebellion against authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents.

Threat:  is a communicated intent to inflict harm or loss on another person. A threat is considered an act of coercion. 

Sustainable Development:  is a process for meeting human development goals while sustaining the ability of natural systems to continue to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depends. While the modern concept of sustainable development is derived most strongly from the 1987 Brundtland Report, it is rooted in earlier ideas about sustainable forest management and twentieth century environmental concerns. As the concept developed, it has shifted to focus more on economic development, social development and environmental protection.

 

1.9      Outline of Chapters 

Chapter One: this will be introductory part of the project which will center on background of the study, statement of research problem, research questions, objectives of the study, scope of the study, significance of the study, possible limitations of the study and definition of terms.  

Chapter Two: this will focus on review of relevant literatures and theoretical framework on the subject matter

Chapter Three: this will focus on history of insurgency in Nigeria with much emphasis on Boko Haram.

Chapter Four: this will dwell on socio-economic implication of Boko-Haram insurgents in Nigeria

Chapter Five: this is the final chapter of the work which will be summary, conclusion and possible recommendation on the work

 

 

 

 

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