• 0 Review(s)

Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00007077

No of Pages: 39

No of Chapters: 1-5

File Format: Microsoft Word

Price :



The bacterialogical quality of Kunun-zaki sold in some locations in Umuahia metropolis was investigated. Ten samples were collected from five different locations in Umuahia. Total heterotrophic count, coliform counts, Salmonella-shigella counts and Staphylococcus aureus counts, isolation and characterization of isolates in the sample were done. The result reveals that kunu 6 from Research  institute has the highest heterotrophic count of 6.9 x106 cfu/ml while kunu 2 from Gate six has the lowest heterotrophic count of 3.9x106 cfu/ml.  Kunu 5 from Research  institute has the highest coliform count of  1.8x106cfu/ml while kunu 4 from Isi gate has the lowest coliform count of 7.2x105cfu/ml. For Staphylococcus count, Kunu 5 from Research institute has the highest count of 7.2x105cfu/ml while kunu 2 from Gate six has the lowest count of 5.1x105cfu/ml. For salmonella-shigella count, kunu 4 from Isi gate has the highest count of 4.4x105cfu/ml while kunu 2 from Gate six has the lowest count 2.2x106 cfu/ml. These counts are above the acceptable standards when compared with microbiological criteria for non-bottled drinks that was published by the centre for food safety, food and environmental hygiene department whose limits are E. coli (<100cfu/ml), Salmonella spp.  (non detected in 25ml) and Staphylococcus aureus (<100cfu/ml). Bacterial identification revealed the presence of E. coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, Citrobacter spp, Lactobacillus spp and Klebsiella sppThe high bacterial load of these organisms could be a matter of serious concern as these organisms are of public health importance.


Title                                                                                                                                   Page

Title Page                                                                                                                                i

Certification                                                                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iii

Acknowledgements                                                                                                                iv

Table of Contents                                                                                                                   v

List of Tables                                                                                                                          viii

List of Figures                                                                                                            ix

Abstract                                                                                                                                  x


1.0       Introduction                                                                                                                1

1.1       Aims and objectives                                                                                                    2


2.0       Literature Review                                                                                                       3

2.1       Nutritive Content of Kunun Drink                                                                             3

2.2       Ingredients used in the Production of Kunun-zaki                                                    4

2.2.1    Millet                                                                                                                           4

2.2.2    Sorghum                                                                                                                      5

2.2.3    Ginger                                                                                                                         6

2.2.4    Red pepper (capsicum annum)                                                                                   7

2.2.5    Cloves (Eggenia calophylloides)                                                                                 8

2.2.6    Black Pepper                                                                                                               8

2.3       Process of Kunun Production                                                                                     9

2.4       Health Benefits of Kunun Drink                                                                                11


3.0       Materials and Methods                                                                                               13

3.1       Collection of Samples                                                                                                 13

3.2       Sterilization of Materials                                                                                             13

3.3       Microbial Analysis                                                                                                      13

3.3.1    Preparation of media                                                                                                   13

3.3.2    Total viable count                                                                                                       14

3.3.3    Characterization and identification of bacterial isolates                                             15



4.0       Results                                                                                                                        19


5.0       Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations                                                         23

5.1       Discussion                                                                                                                   23

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                                  25

5.3       Recommendations                                                                                                      26

References                                                                                                                  27








Table                                                        Title                                                                Pages

2.1                   The nutritive content of Kunu-zaki                                                                4


4.1                   Total bacterial count of the Kunun-zaki samples sold in Umuahia

Metropolis                                                                                                       20


4.2                   Characterization and identification of organisms isolated from

Kunun-zaki samples sold in Umuahia metropolis                                           21


4.3                   Bacterial diversity and percentage occurrence of the bacteria isolates           22








Figures                                         Title                                                                                   Pages


2.1:            Flow chart for kunun-zaki production                                                                        11








Kunun-zaki is a non alcoholic beverage drink sold in several public places including markets, offices, schools, motor parks and served as drinks during festivities, weddings and naming ceremonies (Umaru et al., 2014). It is an appetizer, food complement and refresher to quench thirst (Adeleke et al., 2010; Mbachu et al., 2014; Amusa and Odunbaku, 2009). It is of low viscosity and has a sweet-sour taste, milky cream appearance and it is popular with people in Northern Nigeria. However, this non alcoholic beverage is becoming more widely accepted in several other parts of Nigeria, including Umuahia metropolis, owing to its refreshing qualities.

Kunun-zaki  is rich nutritionally; hence several Nigerians who could not afford imported milk extensively consume this drink especially in the rural areas (Mbachu et al., 2014). There are different types of kunu depending on the feedstock used for processing. This include kunun zaki, kunun gyada, kunun akamu, kunun tsamiya, kunun baule, kunun jiko and kunun gayamba (Amusa and Odunbaku, 2009; Essien et al., 2009). Of these kunun zaki is the most widely produced and consumed (Gaffa et al., 2002; Amusa and Ashaye, 2009; Ayo et al., 2010).

The production of kunun-zaki is mostly carried out in environments were quality control is lacking just like in most fermented foods in Nigeria. Some of the microorganisms involved in the fermentation of food include Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Penicillin and Saccharomyces species (Oyewole and Isah, 2012). The production of kunun-zaki in environment with poor sanitary condition could predispose consumers of the drink to pathogens of medical or public health importance. Furthermore, the drink has short shelf-life. Kunu-zaki is prone to microbial spoilage if not adequately stored and could act as important medium for the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms (Ogbonna et al., 2011).

According to Mbachu et al., (2014) the short shelf-life of kunun-zaki drink is a major challenge faced by their producers and consumers. The invasion of bacteria to this drink resulting from the processing activities and materials such as water, handling and preservation techniques. Again, there is no regulatory agency of public health that monitors the production processes of kunun drinks in spite of the associated harm that is allied to it. According to Umaru et al. (2014), local drinks such as kunu could act as vehicles for zoonotic and food born infections including Salmonellosis, Brucellosis, Tuberculosis, Shigellosis, Listeriosis etc. Most of the pathogens found in food materials lead to diarrhea. Additionally, bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp, Clostridium, Bacillus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholera and Escherichia coli could contaminate food and lead to change in physical and nutritional quality (Bukar et al., 2010).



The aims and objectives are:

  1. To isolate, characterize and identify the bacterial species associated with kunun-zaki
  2. To determine the bacterial load of kunun-zaki sold in Umuahia metropolis.


Click “DOWNLOAD NOW” below to get the complete Projects


+(234) 0814 780 1594

Buyers has the right to create dispute within seven (7) days of purchase for 100% refund request when you experience issue with the file received. 

Dispute can only be created when you receive a corrupt file, a wrong file or irregularities in the table of contents and content of the file you received. shall either provide the appropriate file within 48hrs or send refund excluding your bank transaction charges. Term and Conditions are applied.

Buyers are expected to confirm that the material you are paying for is available on our website and you have selected the right material, you have also gone through the preliminary pages and it interests you before payment. DO NOT MAKE BANK PAYMENT IF YOUR TOPIC IS NOT ON THE WEBSITE.

In case of payment for a material not available on, the management of has the right to keep your money until you send a topic that is available on our website within 48 hours.

You cannot change topic after receiving material of the topic you ordered and paid for.

Ratings & Reviews


No Review Found.

To Review

To Comment