study seeks to discover audience perception of musical programmes on DSTV, aims
at understanding reasons on choice and taste of preferences for such musical
programmes aired on DSTV and their derivable benefits to its audience.
study adopts the survey research design. It samples perception and opinions of
residents in Lagos metropolis. It analyzed and gives a detail report on the
data gathered. The process involves drawing up of a questionnaire that revolves
around the issue research in the study, to be administered to 200 members of
the selected population (Surulere, Yaba, Victoria Island and Lekki). The
theories adopted and utilized are the Cultural norms theory, Perception Studies
theory and Uses and Gratifications theory.
study reveals that majority of the audience watch entertainment programmes
(musical programmes) on DSTV in Lagos metropolis and their dispositions to such
musical programmes are influenced by personal relationships, past experiences
and quality of the videos. Also, the study reveals in its findings that music
is a form of relaxation as it helps calm nerves.
study recommends that music channels and station owners airing musical
programmes and videos should ensure that the messages conveyed across to music
audience by the musicians/artistes shall be more appealing to the values and
aspirations of its audience.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of contents vi
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Effective therapy for pain 1
1.3 Reducing blood pressure 4
1.4 Medicine for the heart 5
1.5 Speeds post-stroke recovery 5
1.6 Chronic headaches & migraine remedy 5
1.7 Music boosts immunity 5
1.8 Music enhances intelligence, learning and
1.9 Music improves memory performance 6
1.10 Music improves concentration and attention 6
1.11 Music improves body movement and
1.12 Music videos 7
1.13 Statement of the problem 7
1.14 Purpose of the study 8
1.15 Research questions 8
1.16 Scope of study 9
1.17 Significance of study 9
1.18 Definition of Terms 9
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE
2.0 Introduction 10
2.1 Conceptual Clarification 10
2.2 Television Broadcast 10
2.3 Digitization In Nigeria 11
2.4 History Of Digital Television (Cable Tv) 11
2.5 Broadcast Programming And Programmes 12
2.6 What Is Programming 13
2.7 What Is A Programme? 14
2.8 Uniqueness Of Broadcast Programming And Programmes 16
2.9 Music And Musical Programmes 17
2.10 Musical programmes 17
2.11 Some types of musical programmes 18
2.12 Some Functions of Music in Broadcasting 20
2.13 Music as Discourse 21
2.14 Music as Communication 21
2.15 Music as Entertainment 22
2.16 Audience 24
2.17 Perception 24
Base Africa 27
2.19 Soundcity 28
2.20 Theoretical Framework 30
2.21 Cultural Norms Theory 30
2.22 Perception Studies 31
2.23 Uses And Gratifications 33
2.24 Empirical Review 36
THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction 39
3.1 Research Design 39
3.2 Population of the Study 40
3.3 Sample and sample Techniques 40
3.4 Method of data Collection 40
3.5 Instrumentation 41
3.6 Validity and Reliability 41
3.7 Statistical Method 41
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
Analysis and Discussion of findings 42
4.1 Method of Data Analysis 42
4.2 Demographic Data 42
4.3 Findings of the Study 59
4.4 Discussion of Findings 60
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY,
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.0 Summary 61
5.1 Conclusion 61
5.2 Recommendation 63
5.3 Limitation to the Study 63
Background of the Study
is perhaps the most popular form of art used in the world today for various
goals. The uses of music seemingly are in exhaustible. It is used for praising,
entertainment, relaxation, passing of information, mourning, teaching,
blessing, cursing amongst many other interesting ways. However, music is a
universal language that cuts across every land and clime.
Microsoft Encarta dictionary, 2009 edition describes
music in many ways, they are as follows:
usually produced by instruments or voices that are arranged or played in order
to create an effect.
art of arranging of making sounds, usually those of musical instruments or
voices, so as to create an effect.
of a particular type, place, time, instrument or style e.g. Rock and roll
sound or a group of sounds that create a desired effect.
the above mentioned definitions, it is easy to deduce that music is a whole lot
of activities with sound as its main components.
as an art has improved with the invention of new instruments, interactions of
different cultures; thereby increasing the interest of all and sundry in
societies worldwide. With the advent of the broadcast media (television and
radio), the concept of music was taken to another level, as music became an
important ingredient in broadcast. Its entertainment function became more
interesting with the introduction of musical videos on television. Throughout history, in all cultures, music has been an
integral part of human life. Archaeological evidence of musical instruments
such as bone flutes and drums predates even agricultural tools. Music researchers have found
correlations between music making and some of the deepest workings of the human
brain. Research has linked active music making with increased language
discrimination and development, math ability, improved school grades,
better-adjusted social behaviour, and improvements in spatial-temporal
reasoning, a cornerstone for problem solving.
Harvard psychologist “Howard
Gardner” has theorized that humans have several different types
of intelligences—logical-mathematical, linguistic, and interpersonal. He
believes that music intelligence is equal in importance to all of them.
Researchers have studied the benefits of music
education for decades, consistently finding strong correlations between music
and academic achievement. For example, positive results have been noted in standardized
tests. Regardless of socioeconomic background, according to a 10-year study
that tracked more than 25,000 middle and high school students, music-making
students get higher marks on standardized tests than those who have little or
no music involvement. The College Entrance Examination Board found that
students in music programs scored 63 points higher on the verbal and 44 points
higher on the math sections of the SATs than students with no music
participation. Additionally, students performed better on other standardized
tests such as reading proficiency exams.
Similarly, a study examining the relationship between
participation in high or low-quality school music programs and standardized
test scores showed that students in high-quality programs scored higher on both
English and mathematics standardized tests than their counterparts who did not
have high-quality instruction (Johnson, 2006). The researchers also found that
students in exceptional music programs as well as low-quality instrumental programs
still performed better in English and mathematics than those students receiving
no music classes.
These findings were all confirmed in the first major
study to compare data from four longitudinal studies. In this study, James
Catterall, found that teenagers and young adults of low socioeconomic status
(SES) who have a history of in-depth arts involvement show better academic
outcomes than the low-SES youth with less arts involvement. These students have
higher test scores in science, writing and math, as well as higher overall GPAs
than students who lacked arts experiences.
Lastly, a study performed at the University of British
Columbia emphasized that participation in music does not hamper achievement in
other domains."Widespread notion is that instructional time spent on music
courses is 'wasted' because it takes away from time used for academic 'core'
subjects and thus slows down students' progress in those courses.
However our results imply that music participation
benefits students in ways that are directly or indirectly linked to higher
academic achievement in general.
Music is one of the few activities
that involve using the whole brain. It is intrinsic to all cultures and can
have surprising benefits not only for learning language, improving memory and
focusing attention, but also for physical coordination and development.
Of course, music can be distracting if it's too
loud or too jarring, or if it competes for our attention with what we're trying
to do. But for the most part, exposure to many kinds of music have beneficial
1.2 Effective therapy for pain
Overall, music does have positive
effects on pain management. Music can help reduce both the sensation and
distress of both chronic pain and postoperative pain.Listening to music can
reduce chronic pain from a range of painful conditions, including
osteoarthritis, disc problems and rheumatoid arthritis, by up to 21% and
depression by up to 25%, according to a paper in the latest UK-based Journal of
Advanced Nursing. Music therapy is increasingly used
in hospitals to reduce the need for medication during childbirth, to decrease
post-operative pain and complement the use of anaesthesia during surgery.
There are several theories about how
music positively affects perceived pain:
-Music serves as a distracter.
-Music may give the patient a sense
-Music causes the body to release
endorphins to counteract pain.
-Slow music relaxes a person by
slowing their breathing and heartbeat.
1.3 Reducing blood
By playing recordings of relaxing
music every morning and evening, people with high blood pressure can train
themselves to lower their blood pressure and keep it low. According to research
reported at the American Society of Hypertension meeting in New Orleans,
listening to just 30 minutes of classical, Celtic or reggae music every day may
significantly reduce high blood pressure.
1.4 Medicine for
Music is good for your heart.
Research shows that it is musical tempo, rather than style. Italian and British
researchers recruited young men and women, half of whom were trained musicians.
The participants slipped on head phones and listened to six styles of music,
including rap and classical pieces, with random two-minute pauses. As the
participants kicked back and listened, the researchers monitored their
breathing, heart rates and blood pressure. The participants had faster heart
and breathing rates when they listened to lively music. When the musical
slowed, so did their heart and breathing rates. Some results were surprising.
During the musical pauses, heart and breathing rates normalized or reached more
optimal levels. Whether or not a person liked the style of music did not
matter. The tempo, or pace, of the music had the greatest effect on relaxation.
A daily dose of one's favourite pop
melodies, classical music or jazz can speed recovery from debilitating strokes,
according to the latest research. When stroke patients in Finland listened to
music for a couple of hours each day, verbal memory and attention span improved
significantly compared to patients who received no musical stimulation, or who
listened only to stories read out loud, the study reports.
headaches & migraine remedy
Music can help migraine and chronic
headache sufferers reduce the intensity, frequency, and duration of the
1.7 Music boosts
Music can boost the immune function.
Scientists explain that a particular type of music can create a positive and
profound emotional experience, which leads to secretion of immune-boosting
hormones. This helps contribute to a reduction in the factors responsible for
illness. Listening to music or singing can also decrease levels of
stress-related hormone cortisol. Higher levels of cortisol can lead to a
decreased immune response.
1.8 Music enhances
intelligence, learning and IQ
The idea that music makes you smarter
received considerable attention from scientists and the media. Listening to
music or playing an instrument can actually make you learn better and research
1.9 Music improves
The power of music to affect memory
is quite intriguing. Mozart's music and baroque music, with a 60 beats per
minute beat pattern, activates the left and right brain. The simultaneous left
and right brain action maximizes learning and retention of information. The
information being studied activates the left brain while the music activates
the right brain. Also, activities which engage both sides of the brain at the same
time, such as playing an instrument or singing, cause the brain to be more
capable of processing information.
1.10 Music improves
concentration and attention
Easy listening music or relaxing
classics improves the duration and intensity of concentration in all age groups
and ability levels. It's not clear what type of music is better, or what kind
of musical structure is necessary to help, but many studies have shown
1.11 Music improves
body movement and coordination
Music reduces muscle tension and
improves body movement and coordination. Music may play an important role in
developing, maintaining and restoring physical functioning in the
rehabilitation of persons with movement disorders.
1.12 Music videos
Encarta encyclopedia (2009) describes music videos as a song length film or
video production that combines the music of a particular musician or musical
groups with complimentary visual images. Most music videos are broadcast on
television, while some are sold in stores on video tapes or laser disc.
the expansion of digital TV (cable TV) channels in the 1980s and the
introduction of Music Television (MTV) in 1981, music videos gained wide
1.13 Statement of the problem
Music has this ability to trigger powerful emotions,
often in conjunction with a memory, but sometimes not. Music is not a
one-size-fits-all experience. Not everyone likes music. And very few people
like every type of music. In fact, most people I have talked with have certain
genres, songs, or artists on their personal "no listen" list.
When someone told me music has fallen by the wayside
in our culture today, I look at them funny. Sure, music has changed more
fervently than it did, say, hundreds of years ago, but today, even though tastes
and styles change more than most people change underwear, there are a lot of
reasons why music is still here and more powerful than ever. To determine how
audience view musical programmes on digital television is tasking as various
genres and programmes have emerged.
We must not lose sight of this caveat that
entertainment drives musicals and the society today, as one of the key elements
of entertainment is musicals.
Television musical programmes constitute a large part
of content in television programming, not only in Nigeria but many television
stations of the world. Music is perhaps the biggest means of passing messages
to the wider audience and its effects are numerous.
Therefore, this project is out to understand how
audience perceive musical programmes, to investigate if music is indeed a
motivator to its audience, to what extent does it benefit its audience i.e.
know about audience perceptions, audience dispositions and preferences
pertaining to musicals or musical programmes.
1.14 Purpose of the study
This study seeks to discover audience
perception of musical programmes on DSTV.
2. The study aims at understanding reasons on
choices and tastes of preference for such musical programmes.
purpose of the study is also to become aware of audience benefits from such
musical programmes on DSTV.
At the end, it is believed that a thorough
study on musical programmes will help in discovering the benefits derivable to
the viewers, the participants and society in general.
1.15 Research questions
The research questions for the study include:
do Lagos residents perceive television musical programmes on DSTV?
what extent do television musical programmes on DSTV benefit its audience?
motivates audience on musical programmes on DSTV?
is the communicative impart of musical programmes to the target audience?
often do audiences watch musical programmes on DSTV?
1.16 Scope of study
to time constraint and limited funds to conduct a large scale research, this
study would be limited to 200 selected audience who are residents in Lagos
State (middle-aged, workers, housewives, youths, students (16 years and above)
who are exposed to digital television (cable TV) and are aware of various musical programmes on DSTV.
1.17 Significance of study
study is very important because it shall be of great benefit and importance to
the audience in general (who are media message users of television musical
programmes), the musical programme producers and presenters, Multi choice
managers (DSTV), music video directors, musicians, students of mass
communication particularly those studying radio and television broadcast,
parents of youths and finally the society at large.
1.18 Definition of Terms
Media/television audiences as the interpreters, consumers and users of
Means being aware enough of a stimulus to attach meaning to it.
are individual packages or materials produced and transmitted by a broadcast
station as its service.
Programmes: A broadcast programme format basically
with the mass media function of entertainment.
A large busy city, especially as the main city in an area or country or a
distinguished from surrounding rural areas.
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