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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00005401

No of Pages: 81

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Background to the Study

Statement of Problems

Objectives of Study

Significance of the Study

Scope of the Study

Research Questions



Review of Related Literature


Agricultural Science Education

Features and Objectives of the JSS Agricultural Science Course (Programme)


Agricultural Science Teacher Mode of Teaching

Teachers’ Pedagogical Approaches

Instructional Methods Adopted By Teachers of Agricultural Science in Secondary Schools

Teaching and Learning of Agricultural Science

Teaching Methods and Students Performance

Communicative Competence in Teaching Agricultural Science and Students’ Performance




Research Method

Research Design


Sample and Sampling Techniques

Data Collection

Research Instrument

Data Collection Procedure

Data Analysis Procedure



Data Analysis and Interpretation

Students Data

Data Summary



Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation




Suggestions for Further Research.


Appendix: Questionnaire








Good  and  qualitative  education  instills  in  people  the competencies  required  for  diverse  roles  in  society. Globally,  education  today  is  widely  recognized  as  the  most  effective  development  investment  a country can  make.  According  to  World  Bank  (2007),  it  is  one  of  the  critical  pathways  to  promote  social  and economic  development.  It  is  central  to  the  development  of  a  better  life  and  better  world.  It  raises economic  development,  reduces  fertility  rate,  lowers  infant  and  maternal  mortality,  improves  the wellbeing  of  families,  and  ensures  better  prospects  of  education  for  children  according  to  Gachukia (2009). 

Thus,  education  has  an  important  influence  on  the  quality  of  life.  The  development  of  human resource  does  not  only  depend  on  the  level  and  intensity  of  formal  and  informal  society  but  also  the building  of  human  capabilities  and  opening  up  employment  opportunities.  Without  education, development  can  neither  be  broad  based  or  sustained  (Orodho,  2014;  Orodho,  Waweru,  Ndichu, Nthinguri2013;  Shery,  2010).

Secondary  School  is  the  bridge  between  the  primary  and  tertiary  levels.  The  importance  of  secondary education  made  the  Federal  Government  of  Nigeria  to  state  the  broad  aims  of  secondary  education as preparation  for  useful  living  within  the  society  and  for  higher  education  (FRN,  2004).  The  underline principle  here  is  that  the  secondary  schools  should  be  able  to provide quality secondary education to all those who can benefit from it. Secondary school curriculum contains subject that is capable of preparing its recipients to live a useful live in the society and also prepares them for higher education. One of the subjects that help to achieve this objective is Agricultural Science.

The  term  agriculture  is  derived  from  two  Latin  words  oger  meaning field  and  culture  meaning  cultivation.  Literarily  agriculture  refers  to  the production  of  crops  and  rearing  of  animal  for  man  use.  Agricultural production involves series of activities which include the cultivation of other products into forms that could be used by man.  The preparation of products include; processing, package, storage, marketing  etc.  agriculture is  regarded  as  the  live-blooded  of  a  nations  domestic  economy  and  the mother  of  all  other  business  occupations  and  professional.

Agricultural Science is taught in the secondary school as a vocational subject. Vocational agriculture is an aspect  of  vocational  education  which  emphasizes  skills,  knowledge  and  attitude  required  in  all  areas  of agriculture  for  proficiency  in  agricultural  production.  One of the principles of vocational agriculture is learning by doing.

The role of agriculture in the industrial and economic development of a nation is too obvious.  This is because there is hardly any industry that does not depend on a well-developed agriculture for its raw materials. A look at some of the developed countries of the world, for example, the United States of America, indicates that the backbone of the industrial and economic position it injuries today is rooted in a well- deve1oped;rgricultural base.  On the other hand, a country that neglects agriculture finds itself in a chain of socio-economic and political problems.  Such a country is often faced with wide spread food shortages, hunger, starvation and, lack of peace.

Teaching  of  agriculture  in  secondary  schools  aims  at  ensuring  that  the  learner  is exposed to and taught the basic principles that are important to agricultural product ion in the country and exposing  and  involving  learners  in  various  practical  and  projects  that  will  help  them  develop  the necessary skills and abilities required in agricultural production. Practical classes are always organized to ensure  that  practical  skills  are  imparted  to  students  to  enable  them become self -reliant, resourceful and useful  to  the  society.  However, Ssekamwa (2009), pointed out that the real approach to the teaching of agriculture was discouraging.  Agricultural Science Subject is taught theoretically and has failed to make an impression on society.

According to Okoli (2011), agriculture is the pillar of the nation welfare, and sound economic development and technological advancement.  Olakunori in Aneke (2014) noted that in the early 1970 agricultural sector accounted for about 71.34% of the nation export Value and 60.61% of raw materials for gross national products. In that understanding agriculture was made a school subject and was taught at all levels in Nigerian education system, that is, at primary, secondary and tertiary institutions.  At secondary level it is called agricultural science.

The objective of agricultural science  for secondary schools  as stipulated in the  National  Policy of  Education FRN (2013) include;  to stimulate and sustain students interest in agriculture;  to enable students acquire  basic  knowledge  and  practical  skills  in  agriculture  and  enable  them  become  self-reliance. These objectives could be achieved if the students are taught by competent teachers of agriculture.

The  teaching  and  learning  of  an  applied  science  like  Agricultural  Science  consists  of  learning facts and figures,  rules,  laws formulae, problem solving, understanding of basic scientific principles of  concepts  and  explanation  of  concepts  and  observed  phenomena  (Ampiah, 2002).    It  is  therefore of  utmost  significance  for  the  teacher  to  use  the  appropriate  pedagogy to  bring  to  good understanding and  learning  of  a  particular  learning task.  It  is  important  that aspects  of  Agricultural Science  like  understanding  of  basic  scientific  concepts,  problem  solving  based  on  observed phenomenon require a good understanding as well as explanatory and problem solving  ability of the student  concerned.

Unfortunately,  students  tend  to  memorize  concepts  that  require  analytical thinking  and  basic  knowledge  in  the  concept  concerned  due  to  the  subject  been  more  theoretical than  practical  (Resmick,  2000).  Facts,  rules  and  laws  are  memorized  but  often  this  information   is not  connected  in  a  coherent  framework  that  would  allow  students  to  make  sense  of  it  and  therefore learning does not take place.

It is, therefore, very important for any professional teacher to know what decision  to make, when to  make  them  and  the  effect  of  such decision  on  the  teaching-learning encounter.  These  decisions, which  give  direction,  purpose,  meaning  and  structure  to  classroom  interaction,  provide  teaching with  its    professional  touch. This project work investigate into the problems affecting the teaching and learning of challenges Agricultural Science in the Junior Secondary School in Ifo Local Government  Area, Ogun  State 



This study intend to investigate the factors affecting the teaching and learning  of  agricultural  science  in the junior secondary school in  Ifo  Local  Government  Area, Ogun  State  and  to  find  solution  to  this  factors.  Based  on  this  problem,  there must  be  need  to  give  serious  attention  so  as  to  achieve  technological advancement and help in  our everyday living.  Because a sound background in  scientific  knowledge  would  provide  a  good  base  for  further  scientific learning  on the  contrary ,  most students lack  this  basic background and this is  as  a  result  of  some  factors  in  teaching  and  learning  of  agricultural science by the teachers and students.

Specifically, this study will geared towards answering questions identified below;

i.                    The teachers methods of teaching is also responsible for the factor affecting the teaching and learning of agricultural science in junior secondary school

ii.                 Students in junior secondary school see agricultural science as a local farmer work i.e a dirty subject

iii.               The non-avalaibiltiy of teaching aids are among factors affecting teaching and learning of agricultural science in junior secondary school.

iv.               Inadequate  land  is  also  a  factor  affecting  the  teaching  of agricultural science.



This study is aimed specifically at investigating the factor affecting  the  teaching  and  learning  agricultural  science  and  also  at  providing  suitable  suggestions that  will  help  improve  the  teaching  and  learning  of  agricultural  science  in the junior secondary  schools  in  Ifo Local  Government  Area,  Ogun State.

The following are some of the specific objective to be achieved;

v To  identify  the  factors  affecting  the  teaching  and  learning  of agricultural science among secondary school students.

v To  examine  the  factors  affecting/inhibiting  the  teaching  and learning  of  agricultural  science  in  the junior secondary  schools  in  Ifo Local Government Area.

v To make recommendations based on the findings it will hope that the  findings  of  this  project  work  will  be  of  immense  benefit  to  agricultural science  teaching  and  learning  throughout  State, since they will be exposed to factors hindering the development of agricultural science.



The  study  will  help  to  throw  some  light  on  the  factors  affecting  the teaching  and  learning  of  agricultural  science  in  the  area  of  study .  The outcome  of  this  study  will  be  useful  to  the  teachers,  students  and government  of Ogun  State  in  general, and IFO  Local  Government Area  in  particular .  The result of the findings will guide the classroom situation; it will also be of immense benefit to the individual especially when it aims at self-reliance.



The  scope  of  the  study  cover  the  attitude  of  teachers and students, towards agricultural science teaching and learning in the junior secondary schools in IFO Local Government Area, Ogun State.



The problem of this Study was investigated by addressing the following research questions:-

·        Are there adequate facilities for the teaching of agricultural science in schools?

·        To what extend did lack of qualified teachers in the subject responsible for students poor performance in Agricultural Science in junior secondary school?

·        What are the Student attitudes towards the study of Agricultural Science in junior secondary school?

·        What are the measures that are put in place to improve the study and teaching of Agricultural Science in junior secondary school?

·        The attitude of students toward the learning of agricultural science in the junior secondary in Ifo local government area in Ogun State. ?

·        Are there adequate modern technology toward the teaching and learning Agricultural Science in the Junior Secondary School?

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