appraised the possible roles of business education in reducing the rate of
unemployment rate in Nigeria, a study of business education department of
University of Lagos. The study employed the survey design and the purposive
sampling technique to select 55 students across all level. A well-constructed
questionnaire, which was adjudged valid and reliable, was used for collection
of data from the respondents. The data obtained through the administration of
the questionnaires was also analyzed.
The results showed
that there is positive and significant relationship between Business Education and reduction of unemployment in Nigeria;
a positive and significant relationship exists between Pedagogical approach and reduction of unemployment in Nigeria;
a positive and significant relationship exists between Student SIWES program and reduction of unemployment in
concludes that Business Education has a significant relationship on reduction
of unemployment rate in Nigeria.
Based on the
findings of the study, the study recommended that; Business Education should be employed by all universities in Nigeria, both state, federal,
and private universities, to ensure that the future of the students
are safeguarded; NUC should
create a department in the education ministry to monitor all universities curriculum,
to ensure all higher
institutions in Nigeria has Business Education as a course, which should be
study for at least two semesters; Government should make the economy
favourable, so students in universities can be encouraged to increase their
passion on business; Government, university management should make students see
reason why business is the way out of unemployment by organizing free seminars
for the university students.
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Purpose of the Study
of the Study
1.5 Research Questions
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Definition of Operational Term
2.1. Overview of the concept of business
2.2 Business Curriculum in Schools
approach to business education in schools
2.5 Social cognitive career
2.6 Theory of pragmatism
2.7 Social learning theory of
career choice (SLTCC)
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.4 Sampling Technique
3.5 Method of Data Collection
3.6 Research Instrument
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND
4.1 Data Presentation
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS,
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary of Findings
to the Study
Education is the
key to national development. This is because it unlocks the economic potentials
of the people; empowers and equips individuals in society to participate in,
and benefit from their national economy; facilitates economic development and
provides the basis for transformation. Education is the essential tool for
sustainability. The present global economic crises suggest that the entire
world is in a war between financial/qualitative education and catastrophe
as part of the total educational system is the type of education that involves
the acquisition of skills, ideas and management abilities necessary for job
creation. A business owner or an entrepreneur promotes employment rather than
seeking for an employment. Therefore, there is a need to embrace this type of
education and provide all the necessary resources needed to make functional.
Quality entrepreneurship education could be used as a tool for fighting the war
against poverty and unemployment in Nigeria.
Education is said
to be qualitative when the input such as students, teachers, finance, facilities
and equipment and all these are converted through teaching and learning (theory
and practical) and produce a desirable output. The output is better equipped to
serve themselves and the society. The quality of input influences to a large
extent the quality of output. In other words, the quality of the input of
entrepreneurship education such as teachers, students and infrastructural
facilities will influence greatly, the input of the output (Olorunmolu, 2010).
all form is one of the principal social and economic challenges of this decade
in Africa and around the world. Long spells of unemployment can have serious
long-term effects for individuals, such as reduced earnings and social
exclusion. The rate of youth unemployment in Nigeria is high, even at the
period of economic prosperity i.e. the oil boom of the 1970s (6.2%); 1980s
(9.8%) and the 1990s (11.5%) to 21.1% in 2010 and 24% in 2011. (NPC, CBN,
McKinsey analysis, 2012).
developing countries in Africa, Nigeria is facing a serious unemployment
problem coupled with a declining standard of living, increasing disparity
between the urban and rural regions of the country, and inadequate social and
physical infrastructures to meet the needs of a rapidly growing population (Ferej,
1994). The National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) published that Nigeria
unemployment rate stood at 33.3% in the fourth quarter of 2020, accounting for
over 70 million unemployed working age people out of over 200 million Nigeria
population. The scenario opens the country to a major crisis if not quickly
addressed, and the higher the number of unemployed youths, the more likely a
crisis could be stirred. There is the urgent need to take youths off the
streets and put them to work in order to achieve peace and economic development
in the country. Unemployment and poverty, especially among the youth, had
remained one of the fundamental challenges threatening the economic development
To provide a means
of survival, many of the unemployed have turned to the informal sector to
create small enterprises that range from trivial trading activities to
reasonably successful production, manufacturing, and construction businesses.
In general, a small enterprise may be defined as an enterprise having less than
20 employees. The small enterprise sector is composed of a range of enterprises
including: self-employed artisans, microenterprises, cottage industries, and
small enterprises in the formal business sector. These small enterprises may be
engaged in trade, commerce, distribution, transport, construction,
agribusiness, manufacturing, maintenance and repair, or other services. As a
result of the trend toward the creation of small enterprises, the informal
sector has grown to include approximately 60% of the labour force in Africa
(International Labour Organization, 2006).
of the Problem
There is a problem of mass employment and
disequilibrium in the labour market in Nigeria, a rapidly growing number of
graduates from the nation’s higher education institution competing for the
shrinking number of available job spaces. It is very interesting to note that
since the re-birth of democracy in Nigeria, more youths have access to
education as well as higher education. Yet statistics still show that most of
them still struggle to be absorbed into the labour market or even have
intention to start their own businesses. Are there historical nuances
associated with these trends or could open access to education be the
underlying cause of this problem? Notwithstanding these critical questions the
basis for this study stems from a general outcry regarding the alleged alarming
rate of unemployed graduates in Nigeria and the pursuit of white color jobs,
despite huge government investment in entrepreneurship education over the last
decade and higher education institution playing a major role of creating an Business
culture and mindest on undergraduate through business education the problem
For almost a decade now in Nigeria the curriculum of
entrepreneurship education has remained un-changed. Worst still is that a
single curriculum is used in training undergraduate of all discipline in
entrepreneurship. To meet the global challenges the curriculum of tertiary
institution need to be overhauled to take care of some inadequacies. Emaikwu
(2011) argues that institutions of higher learning in Nigeria have concentrated
more on theoretical and abstract instructional deliveries focusing only on
cognitive development and consequently turning out non-Business skilled
graduate into labour market. Curriculum experts have attested that there is the
need to change from the hangover effects of theoretical liberal academic
education which focused only on cognitive development to the utter neglect of
entrepreneurship education that has its focus on practical occupational skills
for self-employment and self-reliance. This of course is a problem that policy
makers in Nigeria need to tackle if they are to enhance the entrepreneurship
culture in the country and increase the Business inclination of undergraduate.
The ultimate challenge therefore, is for the policy makers to encourage
curriculum innovation aimed at producing graduates with the right mind set for
starting business of their own and in the same vein motivating other to
start-up business for economic reliance.
Teaching methods or pedagogical approach to delivering
business education to undergraduates may increase Business inclination. The
high rate of unemployment in Nigeria calls to question what knowledge or skill
was actually imparted and through what teaching method was it imparted and why
the decision to seek for a job instead of business startup? Results illustrate
that there is a demand for new education set consisting of new material of
self-improvement skill knowledge and experience. In Nigeria, the education
model is based on the idea of “get –a-job”, whereas entrepreneurship education
according to Liang (2011) should be built on information skills and mentally
supporting the philosophy of creating jobs by creating innovative ideas. Business
trainers can refer to general sources of teaching methods (Barkley, 2010) or
consider assessment of categories of entrepreneurship courses and programmes.
In Nigeria the confusing state of education has led to the recent call for an
emergency to be declared in that sector. With graduates from Higher Education
Institution in Nigeria being called “half baked” or “unbaked” it calls to
question the methods used in delivering knowledge as well as the content and
relevance of the knowledge delivered.
workplace learning is based on the notion that the experience a learner gains
at work is considered as an important aspect in matters concerning learning.
Therefore internship or work place learning induce a conscious effort to
establish a situation where learning takes place in real life situation
(Sumatti, 2012). While studies of student perception on internship have been
conducted in Malaysia (Sumati, 2012) and in the UK (Halyoak, 2013) the study of
their effect on Business inclination is a different thing. In Nigeria,
polytechnic student irrespective of discipline must embark on 1 or 2 years
of the Study
objective of this study is to evaluate the roles of business education in
reducing the unemployment rate in Nigeria. It is hope that with this research
work through its findings, the researcher would be able to:
the impact of the Business education on the reduction of unemployment in
the impact of pedagogical approach on the reduction of unemployment in Nigeria.
the impact of student internship programme on the reduction of unemployment in
1.4 Significance of the Study
The eventual significance of
this study will be discussed under different functional headings appropriately:
- The study will be of
importance to education policy makers as it will further highlight the
relevance of business education to reducing unemployment in the country.
- The study will
increase the frontiers of knowledge on using business education to solve
national economic problems.
- The study will be
beneficial to the government on the need for greater integration of
education to the economy to improve on self-employment.
- The study will be a
starting point for future researchers on the subject matter of business
education as a tool for addressing graduate unemployability and reduction
is the impact of Business education on the reduction of unemployment in
How does pedagogical approach impact on the
reduction of unemployment in Nigeria?
does student SIWES program impact on the reduction of unemployment in Nigeria?
research method has been chosen for this study. This design is suitable because
it will give room for obtaining information from the Business Education
Department of University of Lagos. The procedures would be as follows:
Interviews: The respondents would be selected across
students and staffs of the University of Lagos.
population for this study comprise of students and staffs of University of
Lagos. The total number of 55 students would be used as the population sample:
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope will focus on
reviewing the reference of business educational courses offered by the
University of Lagos. Efforts will be made to examine the contribution of their
programmes to entrepreneurship development especially in Lagos State.
of Operational Term
Education: Education is the process of
facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values,
beliefs, and habits.
the number of people in the work force who want to work but do not have job. It
is generally stated as a percentage and calculated by dividing the number of
people who are unemployed by
the total work force.
Pedagogical Approach: Pedagogical approach refers
to the interactions between teachers, students, and the learning environment
and the learning tasks.
Student Internship: Internship is an opportunity offered by an employer to potential employees, called
interns, to work at a firm for a
fixed, limited period of time
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